# Difference between revisions of "Topological data scripting"

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− | + | <languages/> | |

+ | <translate> | ||

+ | <!--T:111--> | ||

+ | {{Docnav|Mesh Scripting|Mesh to Part}} | ||

− | == | + | <!--T:109--> |

+ | {{TutorialInfo | ||

+ | |Topic=Programming | ||

+ | |Level=Intermediate | ||

+ | |Time= | ||

+ | |Author= | ||

+ | |FCVersion= | ||

+ | |Files= | ||

+ | }} | ||

− | |||

− | + | <!--T:1--> | |

+ | This page describes several methods for creating and modifying [[Part Module|Part shapes]] from python. Before reading this page, if you are new to python, it is a good idea to read about [[Introduction to Python|python scripting]] and [[FreeCAD Scripting Basics|how python scripting works in FreeCAD]]. | ||

+ | == Introduction == <!--T:2--> | ||

+ | Here we will explain to you how to control the [[Part Module]] directly from the FreeCAD Python interpreter, or from any external script. The basics about Topological data scripting are described in [[Part_Module#Explaining_the_concepts|Part Module Explaining the concepts]]. Be sure to browse the [[Scripting]] section and the [[FreeCAD Scripting Basics]] pages if you need more information about how python scripting works in FreeCAD. | ||

+ | |||

+ | === Class Diagram === <!--T:3--> | ||

This is a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unified_Modeling_Language Unified Modeling Language (UML)] overview of the most important classes of the Part module: | This is a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unified_Modeling_Language Unified Modeling Language (UML)] overview of the most important classes of the Part module: | ||

[[Image:Part_Classes.jpg|center|Python classes of the Part module]] | [[Image:Part_Classes.jpg|center|Python classes of the Part module]] | ||

− | === Geometry === | + | === Geometry === <!--T:4--> |

− | |||

The geometric objects are the building block of all topological objects: | The geometric objects are the building block of all topological objects: | ||

− | |||

* '''Geom''' Base class of the geometric objects | * '''Geom''' Base class of the geometric objects | ||

− | * '''Line''' A straight line in 3D, defined by starting point and | + | * '''Line''' A straight line in 3D, defined by starting point and end point |

* '''Circle''' Circle or circle segment defined by a center point and start and end point | * '''Circle''' Circle or circle segment defined by a center point and start and end point | ||

− | * '''......''' And soon some more | + | * '''......''' And soon some more |

− | |||

− | |||

+ | === Topology === <!--T:5--> | ||

The following topological data types are available: | The following topological data types are available: | ||

− | |||

* '''Compound''' A group of any type of topological object. | * '''Compound''' A group of any type of topological object. | ||

* '''Compsolid''' A composite solid is a set of solids connected by their faces. It expands the notions of WIRE and SHELL to solids. | * '''Compsolid''' A composite solid is a set of solids connected by their faces. It expands the notions of WIRE and SHELL to solids. | ||

Line 33: | Line 44: | ||

* '''Shape''' A generic term covering all of the above. | * '''Shape''' A generic term covering all of the above. | ||

− | === Quick example : Creating simple topology === | + | === Quick example : Creating simple topology === <!--T:6--> |

− | [[Image:Wire.png | + | <!--T:7--> |

+ | [[Image:Wire.png|Wire]] | ||

+ | |||

+ | |||

+ | <!--T:8--> | ||

We will now create a topology by constructing it out of simpler geometry. | We will now create a topology by constructing it out of simpler geometry. | ||

As a case study we use a part as seen in the picture which consists of | As a case study we use a part as seen in the picture which consists of | ||

four vertexes, two circles and two lines. | four vertexes, two circles and two lines. | ||

− | ==== Creating Geometry ==== | + | ==== Creating Geometry ==== <!--T:9--> |

− | |||

First we have to create the distinct geometric parts of this wire. | First we have to create the distinct geometric parts of this wire. | ||

And we have to take care that the vertexes of the geometric parts | And we have to take care that the vertexes of the geometric parts | ||

Line 47: | Line 61: | ||

able to connect the geometric parts to a topology! | able to connect the geometric parts to a topology! | ||

+ | <!--T:10--> | ||

So we create first the points: | So we create first the points: | ||

− | + | </translate> | |

− | + | {{Code|code= | |

− | + | from FreeCAD import Base | |

− | + | V1 = Base.Vector(0,10,0) | |

− | + | V2 = Base.Vector(30,10,0) | |

+ | V3 = Base.Vector(30,-10,0) | ||

+ | V4 = Base.Vector(0,-10,0) | ||

+ | }} | ||

+ | <translate> | ||

+ | |||

+ | ==== Arc ==== <!--T:11--> | ||

+ | |||

+ | <!--T:12--> | ||

+ | [[Image:Circel.png|Circle]] | ||

− | |||

− | + | <!--T:13--> | |

To create an arc of circle we make a helper point and create the arc of | To create an arc of circle we make a helper point and create the arc of | ||

circle through three points: | circle through three points: | ||

− | + | </translate> | |

− | + | {{Code|code= | |

− | + | VC1 = Base.Vector(-10,0,0) | |

− | + | C1 = Part.Arc(V1,VC1,V4) | |

− | + | # and the second one | |

+ | VC2 = Base.Vector(40,0,0) | ||

+ | C2 = Part.Arc(V2,VC2,V3) | ||

+ | }} | ||

+ | <translate> | ||

− | ==== Line ==== | + | ==== Line ==== <!--T:14--> |

− | |||

− | |||

− | + | <!--T:15--> | |

− | + | [[Image:Line.png|Line]] | |

− | |||

− | |||

+ | <!--T:16--> | ||

+ | The line segment can be created very simple out of the points: | ||

+ | |||

+ | </translate> | ||

+ | {{Code|code= | ||

+ | L1 = Part.LineSegment(V1,V2) | ||

+ | # and the second one | ||

+ | L2 = Part.LineSegment(V3,V4) | ||

+ | }} | ||

+ | <translate> | ||

+ | |||

+ | <!--T:110--> | ||

+ | ''Note: in FreeCAD 0.16 Part.Line was used, for FreeCAD 0.17 Part.LineSegment has to be used'' | ||

+ | |||

+ | ==== Putting it all together ==== <!--T:17--> | ||

The last step is to put the geometric base elements together | The last step is to put the geometric base elements together | ||

and bake a topological shape: | and bake a topological shape: | ||

− | + | </translate> | |

− | + | {{Code|code= | |

− | + | S1 = Part.Shape([C1,L1,C2,L2]) | |

+ | }} | ||

+ | <translate> | ||

+ | ==== Make a prism ==== <!--T:18--> | ||

Now extrude the wire in a direction and make an actual 3D shape: | Now extrude the wire in a direction and make an actual 3D shape: | ||

− | + | </translate> | |

− | + | {{Code|code= | |

+ | W = Part.Wire(S1.Edges) | ||

+ | P = W.extrude(Base.Vector(0,0,10)) | ||

+ | }} | ||

+ | <translate> | ||

− | ==== Show it all ==== | + | ==== Show it all ==== <!--T:19--> |

− | + | </translate> | |

− | + | {{Code|code= | |

− | + | Part.show(P) | |

+ | }} | ||

+ | <translate> | ||

+ | == Creating basic shapes == <!--T:20--> | ||

You can easily create basic topological objects with the "make...()" | You can easily create basic topological objects with the "make...()" | ||

methods from the Part Module: | methods from the Part Module: | ||

− | + | </translate> | |

− | + | {{Code|code= | |

− | + | b = Part.makeBox(100,100,100) | |

− | + | Part.show(b) | |

+ | }} | ||

+ | <translate> | ||

+ | <!--T:21--> | ||

+ | Other make...() methods available: | ||

* '''makeBox(l,w,h)''': Makes a box located in p and pointing into the direction d with the dimensions (l,w,h) | * '''makeBox(l,w,h)''': Makes a box located in p and pointing into the direction d with the dimensions (l,w,h) | ||

* '''makeCircle(radius)''': Makes a circle with a given radius | * '''makeCircle(radius)''': Makes a circle with a given radius | ||

− | * '''makeCone(radius1,radius2,height)''': Makes a cone with | + | * '''makeCone(radius1,radius2,height)''': Makes a cone with the given radii and height |

* '''makeCylinder(radius,height)''': Makes a cylinder with a given radius and height. | * '''makeCylinder(radius,height)''': Makes a cylinder with a given radius and height. | ||

− | * '''makeLine((x1,y1,z1),(x2,y2,z2))''': Makes a line | + | * '''makeLine((x1,y1,z1),(x2,y2,z2))''': Makes a line from two points |

* '''makePlane(length,width)''': Makes a plane with length and width | * '''makePlane(length,width)''': Makes a plane with length and width | ||

− | * '''makePolygon(list)''': Makes a polygon | + | * '''makePolygon(list)''': Makes a polygon from a list of points |

− | * '''makeSphere(radius)''': | + | * '''makeSphere(radius)''': Makes a sphere with a given radius |

− | * '''makeTorus(radius1,radius2)''': Makes a torus with | + | * '''makeTorus(radius1,radius2)''': Makes a torus with the given radii |

− | |||

See the [[Part API]] page for a complete list of available methods of the Part module. | See the [[Part API]] page for a complete list of available methods of the Part module. | ||

− | ==== Importing the needed modules ==== | + | ==== Importing the needed modules ==== <!--T:22--> |

− | |||

First we need to import the Part module so we can use its contents in python. | First we need to import the Part module so we can use its contents in python. | ||

We'll also import the Base module from inside the FreeCAD module: | We'll also import the Base module from inside the FreeCAD module: | ||

− | + | </translate> | |

− | + | {{Code|code= | |

− | + | import Part | |

− | + | from FreeCAD import Base | |

+ | }} | ||

+ | <translate> | ||

+ | ==== Creating a Vector ==== <!--T:23--> | ||

[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euclidean_vector Vectors] are one of the most | [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euclidean_vector Vectors] are one of the most | ||

− | important pieces of information when building shapes. They contain | + | important pieces of information when building shapes. They usually contain three numbers |

− | + | (but not necessarily always): the x, y and z cartesian coordinates. You | |

create a vector like this: | create a vector like this: | ||

− | + | </translate> | |

+ | {{Code|code= | ||

+ | myVector = Base.Vector(3,2,0) | ||

+ | }} | ||

+ | <translate> | ||

+ | <!--T:24--> | ||

We just created a vector at coordinates x=3, y=2, z=0. In the Part module, | We just created a vector at coordinates x=3, y=2, z=0. In the Part module, | ||

vectors are used everywhere. Part shapes also use another kind of point | vectors are used everywhere. Part shapes also use another kind of point | ||

− | representation | + | representation called Vertex which is simply a container |

for a vector. You access the vector of a vertex like this: | for a vector. You access the vector of a vertex like this: | ||

− | + | </translate> | |

− | + | {{Code|code= | |

− | + | myVertex = myShape.Vertexes[0] | |

− | + | print myVertex.Point | |

− | + | > Vector (3, 2, 0) | |

+ | }} | ||

+ | <translate> | ||

+ | ==== Creating an Edge ==== <!--T:25--> | ||

An edge is nothing but a line with two vertexes: | An edge is nothing but a line with two vertexes: | ||

− | + | </translate> | |

− | + | {{Code|code= | |

− | + | edge = Part.makeLine((0,0,0), (10,0,0)) | |

+ | edge.Vertexes | ||

+ | > [<Vertex object at 01877430>, <Vertex object at 014888E0>] | ||

+ | }} | ||

+ | <translate> | ||

+ | <!--T:26--> | ||

Note: You can also create an edge by passing two vectors: | Note: You can also create an edge by passing two vectors: | ||

− | + | </translate> | |

− | + | {{Code|code= | |

− | + | vec1 = Base.Vector(0,0,0) | |

− | + | vec2 = Base.Vector(10,0,0) | |

+ | line = Part.LineSegment(vec1,vec2) | ||

+ | edge = line.toShape() | ||

+ | }} | ||

+ | <translate> | ||

+ | <!--T:27--> | ||

You can find the length and center of an edge like this: | You can find the length and center of an edge like this: | ||

− | + | </translate> | |

− | + | {{Code|code= | |

− | + | edge.Length | |

− | + | > 10.0 | |

+ | edge.CenterOfMass | ||

+ | > Vector (5, 0, 0) | ||

+ | }} | ||

+ | <translate> | ||

− | ==== Putting the shape on screen ==== | + | ==== Putting the shape on screen ==== <!--T:28--> |

− | + | So far we created an edge object, but it doesn't appear anywhere on the screen. | |

− | So far we created an edge object, but it doesn't appear anywhere on screen. | + | This is because the FreeCAD 3D scene |

− | This is because | ||

only displays what you tell it to display. To do that, we use this simple | only displays what you tell it to display. To do that, we use this simple | ||

method: | method: | ||

− | + | </translate> | |

+ | {{Code|code= | ||

+ | Part.show(edge) | ||

+ | }} | ||

+ | <translate> | ||

− | + | <!--T:29--> | |

− | + | The show function creates an object in our FreeCAD document and assigns our "edge" shape | |

− | creation on screen. | + | to it. Use this whenever it is time to display your creation on screen. |

− | |||

− | |||

+ | ==== Creating a Wire ==== <!--T:30--> | ||

A wire is a multi-edge line and can be created from a list of edges | A wire is a multi-edge line and can be created from a list of edges | ||

or even a list of wires: | or even a list of wires: | ||

− | + | </translate> | |

− | + | {{Code|code= | |

− | + | edge1 = Part.makeLine((0,0,0), (10,0,0)) | |

− | + | edge2 = Part.makeLine((10,0,0), (10,10,0)) | |

− | + | wire1 = Part.Wire([edge1,edge2]) | |

− | + | edge3 = Part.makeLine((10,10,0), (0,10,0)) | |

− | + | edge4 = Part.makeLine((0,10,0), (0,0,0)) | |

− | + | wire2 = Part.Wire([edge3,edge4]) | |

− | + | wire3 = Part.Wire([wire1,wire2]) | |

− | + | wire3.Edges | |

+ | > [<Edge object at 016695F8>, <Edge object at 0197AED8>, <Edge object at 01828B20>, <Edge object at 0190A788>] | ||

+ | Part.show(wire3) | ||

+ | }} | ||

+ | <translate> | ||

+ | <!--T:31--> | ||

Part.show(wire3) will display the 4 edges that compose our wire. Other | Part.show(wire3) will display the 4 edges that compose our wire. Other | ||

useful information can be easily retrieved: | useful information can be easily retrieved: | ||

− | + | </translate> | |

− | + | {{Code|code= | |

− | + | wire3.Length | |

− | + | > 40.0 | |

− | + | wire3.CenterOfMass | |

− | + | > Vector (5, 5, 0) | |

− | + | wire3.isClosed() | |

− | + | > True | |

− | + | wire2.isClosed() | |

− | + | > False | |

+ | }} | ||

+ | <translate> | ||

+ | ==== Creating a Face ==== <!--T:32--> | ||

Only faces created from closed wires will be valid. In this example, wire3 | Only faces created from closed wires will be valid. In this example, wire3 | ||

is a closed wire but wire2 is not a closed wire (see above) | is a closed wire but wire2 is not a closed wire (see above) | ||

− | + | </translate> | |

− | + | {{Code|code= | |

− | + | face = Part.Face(wire3) | |

− | + | face.Area | |

− | + | > 99.999999999999972 | |

− | + | face.CenterOfMass | |

− | + | > Vector (5, 5, 0) | |

− | + | face.Length | |

− | + | > 40.0 | |

− | + | face.isValid() | |

− | + | > True | |

− | + | sface = Part.Face(wire2) | |

+ | face.isValid() | ||

+ | > False | ||

+ | }} | ||

+ | <translate> | ||

+ | <!--T:33--> | ||

Only faces will have an area, not wires nor edges. | Only faces will have an area, not wires nor edges. | ||

− | ==== Creating a Circle ==== | + | ==== Creating a Circle ==== <!--T:34--> |

− | |||

A circle can be created as simply as this: | A circle can be created as simply as this: | ||

− | + | </translate> | |

− | + | {{Code|code= | |

− | + | circle = Part.makeCircle(10) | |

+ | circle.Curve | ||

+ | > Circle (Radius : 10, Position : (0, 0, 0), Direction : (0, 0, 1)) | ||

+ | }} | ||

+ | <translate> | ||

− | If you want to create it at certain position and with certain direction: | + | <!--T:35--> |

+ | If you want to create it at a certain position and with a certain direction: | ||

− | + | </translate> | |

− | + | {{Code|code= | |

− | + | ccircle = Part.makeCircle(10, Base.Vector(10,0,0), Base.Vector(1,0,0)) | |

+ | ccircle.Curve | ||

+ | > Circle (Radius : 10, Position : (10, 0, 0), Direction : (1, 0, 0)) | ||

+ | }} | ||

+ | <translate> | ||

− | ccircle will be created at distance 10 from origin | + | <!--T:36--> |

− | + | ccircle will be created at distance 10 from the x origin and will be facing | |

− | and normal | + | outwards along the x axis. Note: makeCircle only accepts Base.Vector() for the position |

− | start | + | and normal parameters, not tuples. You can also create part of the circle by giving |

+ | a start and an end angle: | ||

− | + | </translate> | |

− | + | {{Code|code= | |

− | + | from math import pi | |

+ | arc1 = Part.makeCircle(10, Base.Vector(0,0,0), Base.Vector(0,0,1), 0, 180) | ||

+ | arc2 = Part.makeCircle(10, Base.Vector(0,0,0), Base.Vector(0,0,1), 180, 360) | ||

+ | }} | ||

+ | <translate> | ||

+ | <!--T:37--> | ||

Both arc1 and arc2 jointly will make a circle. Angles should be provided in | Both arc1 and arc2 jointly will make a circle. Angles should be provided in | ||

− | degrees | + | degrees; if you have radians simply convert them using the formula: |

degrees = radians * 180/PI or using python's math module (after doing import | degrees = radians * 180/PI or using python's math module (after doing import | ||

math, of course): | math, of course): | ||

− | + | </translate> | |

− | + | {{Code|code= | |

− | + | degrees = math.degrees(radians) | |

+ | }} | ||

+ | <translate> | ||

− | Unfortunately there is no makeArc function but we have Part.Arc function to | + | ==== Creating an Arc along points ==== <!--T:38--> |

− | create an arc | + | Unfortunately there is no makeArc function, but we have the Part.Arc function to |

− | joining start point | + | create an arc through three points. It creates an arc object |

− | + | joining the start point to the end point through the middle point. | |

− | the same | + | The arc object's .toShape() function must be called to get an edge object, |

+ | the same as when using Part.LineSegment instead of Part.makeLine. | ||

− | + | </translate> | |

− | + | {{Code|code= | |

− | + | arc = Part.Arc(Base.Vector(0,0,0),Base.Vector(0,5,0),Base.Vector(5,5,0)) | |

− | + | arc | |

+ | > <Arc object> | ||

+ | arc_edge = arc.toShape() | ||

+ | }} | ||

+ | <translate> | ||

+ | <!--T:39--> | ||

Arc only accepts Base.Vector() for points but not tuples. arc_edge is what | Arc only accepts Base.Vector() for points but not tuples. arc_edge is what | ||

we want which we can display using Part.show(arc_edge). You can also obtain | we want which we can display using Part.show(arc_edge). You can also obtain | ||

an arc by using a portion of a circle: | an arc by using a portion of a circle: | ||

− | + | </translate> | |

− | + | {{Code|code= | |

− | + | from math import pi | |

+ | circle = Part.Circle(Base.Vector(0,0,0),Base.Vector(0,0,1),10) | ||

+ | arc = Part.Arc(circle,0,pi) | ||

+ | }} | ||

+ | <translate> | ||

− | Arcs are valid edges | + | <!--T:40--> |

+ | Arcs are valid edges like lines, so they can be used in wires also. | ||

− | ==== Creating a polygon ==== | + | ==== Creating a polygon ==== <!--T:41--> |

+ | A polygon is simply a wire with multiple straight edges. The makePolygon | ||

+ | function takes a list of points and creates a wire through those points: | ||

− | + | </translate> | |

− | + | {{Code|code= | |

+ | lshape_wire = Part.makePolygon([Base.Vector(0,5,0),Base.Vector(0,0,0),Base.Vector(5,0,0)]) | ||

+ | }} | ||

+ | <translate> | ||

− | + | ==== Creating a Bézier curve ==== <!--T:42--> | |

+ | Bézier curves are used to model smooth curves using a series of poles (points) and optional weights. The function below makes a Part.BezierCurve from a series of FreeCAD.Vector points. (Note: when "getting" and "setting" a single pole or weight, indices start at 1, not 0.) | ||

− | === | + | </translate> |

+ | {{Code|code= | ||

+ | def makeBCurveEdge(Points): | ||

+ | geomCurve = Part.BezierCurve() | ||

+ | geomCurve.setPoles(Points) | ||

+ | edge = Part.Edge(geomCurve) | ||

+ | return(edge) | ||

+ | }} | ||

+ | <translate> | ||

− | A Plane is simply a flat rectangular surface. The method used to create one is | + | ==== Creating a Plane ==== <!--T:43--> |

− | + | A Plane is simply a flat rectangular surface. The method used to create one is '''makePlane(length,width,[start_pnt,dir_normal])'''. By default | |

start_pnt = Vector(0,0,0) and dir_normal = Vector(0,0,1). Using dir_normal = Vector(0,0,1) | start_pnt = Vector(0,0,0) and dir_normal = Vector(0,0,1). Using dir_normal = Vector(0,0,1) | ||

− | will create the plane facing z axis, while dir_normal = Vector(1,0,0) will create the | + | will create the plane facing in the positive z axis direction, while dir_normal = Vector(1,0,0) will create the |

− | plane facing x axis: | + | plane facing in the positive x axis direction: |

− | + | </translate> | |

− | + | {{Code|code= | |

− | + | plane = Part.makePlane(2,2) | |

− | + | plane | |

− | + | ><Face object at 028AF990> | |

− | + | plane = Part.makePlane(2, 2, Base.Vector(3,0,0), Base.Vector(0,1,0)) | |

+ | plane.BoundBox | ||

+ | > BoundBox (3, 0, 0, 5, 0, 2) | ||

+ | }} | ||

+ | <translate> | ||

+ | <!--T:44--> | ||

BoundBox is a cuboid enclosing the plane with a diagonal starting at | BoundBox is a cuboid enclosing the plane with a diagonal starting at | ||

− | (3,0,0) and ending at (5,0,2). Here the BoundBox thickness | + | (3,0,0) and ending at (5,0,2). Here the BoundBox thickness along the y axis is zero, |

since our shape is totally flat. | since our shape is totally flat. | ||

− | Note: makePlane only accepts Base.Vector() for start_pnt and dir_normal but not tuples | + | <!--T:45--> |

+ | Note: makePlane only accepts Base.Vector() for start_pnt and dir_normal but not tuples. | ||

− | ==== Creating an ellipse ==== | + | ==== Creating an ellipse ==== <!--T:46--> |

+ | There are several ways to create an ellipse: | ||

− | + | </translate> | |

− | + | {{Code|code= | |

− | + | Part.Ellipse() | |

+ | }} | ||

+ | <translate> | ||

− | Creates an ellipse with major radius 2 and minor radius 1 with the center | + | <!--T:47--> |

+ | Creates an ellipse with major radius 2 and minor radius 1 with the center at (0,0,0). | ||

− | + | </translate> | |

+ | {{Code|code= | ||

+ | Part.Ellipse(Ellipse) | ||

+ | }} | ||

+ | <translate> | ||

− | + | <!--T:48--> | |

+ | Creates a copy of the given ellipse. | ||

− | + | </translate> | |

+ | {{Code|code= | ||

+ | Part.Ellipse(S1,S2,Center) | ||

+ | }} | ||

+ | <translate> | ||

+ | <!--T:49--> | ||

Creates an ellipse centered on the point Center, where the plane of the | Creates an ellipse centered on the point Center, where the plane of the | ||

ellipse is defined by Center, S1 and S2, its major axis is defined by | ellipse is defined by Center, S1 and S2, its major axis is defined by | ||

Line 324: | Line 475: | ||

and its minor radius is the distance between S2 and the major axis. | and its minor radius is the distance between S2 and the major axis. | ||

− | + | </translate> | |

+ | {{Code|code= | ||

+ | Part.Ellipse(Center,MajorRadius,MinorRadius) | ||

+ | }} | ||

+ | <translate> | ||

+ | <!--T:50--> | ||

Creates an ellipse with major and minor radii MajorRadius and MinorRadius, | Creates an ellipse with major and minor radii MajorRadius and MinorRadius, | ||

− | + | located in the plane defined by Center and the normal (0,0,1) | |

− | + | </translate> | |

− | + | {{Code|code= | |

+ | eli = Part.Ellipse(Base.Vector(10,0,0),Base.Vector(0,5,0),Base.Vector(0,0,0)) | ||

+ | Part.show(eli.toShape()) | ||

+ | }} | ||

+ | <translate> | ||

− | In the above code we have passed S1, S2 and center. | + | <!--T:51--> |

− | Ellipse | + | In the above code we have passed S1, S2 and center. Similar to Arc, |

− | convert it into edge using toShape() | + | Ellipse creates an ellipse object but not edge, so we need to |

+ | convert it into an edge using toShape() for display. | ||

− | Note: Arc only accepts Base.Vector() for points but not tuples | + | <!--T:52--> |

+ | Note: Arc only accepts Base.Vector() for points but not tuples. | ||

− | + | </translate> | |

− | + | {{Code|code= | |

+ | eli = Part.Ellipse(Base.Vector(0,0,0),10,5) | ||

+ | Part.show(eli.toShape()) | ||

+ | }} | ||

+ | <translate> | ||

− | for the above Ellipse constructor we have passed center, MajorRadius and MinorRadius | + | <!--T:53--> |

+ | for the above Ellipse constructor we have passed center, MajorRadius and MinorRadius. | ||

− | ==== Creating a Torus ==== | + | ==== Creating a Torus ==== <!--T:54--> |

− | + | Using '''makeTorus(radius1,radius2,[pnt,dir,angle1,angle2,angle])'''. | |

− | Using | + | By default pnt=Vector(0,0,0), dir=Vector(0,0,1), angle1=0, angle2=360 and angle=360. |

− | default pnt=Vector(0,0,0),dir=Vector(0,0,1),angle1=0,angle2=360 and angle=360. | ||

Consider a torus as small circle sweeping along a big circle. Radius1 is the | Consider a torus as small circle sweeping along a big circle. Radius1 is the | ||

− | radius of big cirlce, radius2 is the radius of small circle, pnt is the center | + | radius of the big cirlce, radius2 is the radius of the small circle, pnt is the center |

− | of torus and dir is the normal direction. angle1 and angle2 are angles in | + | of the torus and dir is the normal direction. angle1 and angle2 are angles in |

− | radians for the small circle | + | radians for the small circle; the last parameter angle is to make a section of |

the torus: | the torus: | ||

− | + | </translate> | |

+ | {{Code|code= | ||

+ | torus = Part.makeTorus(10, 2) | ||

+ | }} | ||

+ | <translate> | ||

− | The above code will create a torus with diameter 20(radius 10) and thickness 4 | + | <!--T:55--> |

− | (small | + | The above code will create a torus with diameter 20 (radius 10) and thickness 4 |

+ | (small circle radius 2) | ||

− | + | </translate> | |

+ | {{Code|code= | ||

+ | tor=Part.makeTorus(10, 5, Base.Vector(0,0,0), Base.Vector(0,0,1), 0, 180) | ||

+ | }} | ||

+ | <translate> | ||

− | The above code will create a slice of the torus | + | <!--T:56--> |

+ | The above code will create a slice of the torus. | ||

− | + | </translate> | |

+ | {{Code|code= | ||

+ | tor=Part.makeTorus(10, 5, Base.Vector(0,0,0), Base.Vector(0,0,1), 0, 360, 180) | ||

+ | }} | ||

+ | <translate> | ||

− | The above code will create a semi torus | + | <!--T:57--> |

+ | The above code will create a semi torus; only the last parameter is changed. | ||

i.e the angle and remaining angles are defaults. Giving the angle 180 will | i.e the angle and remaining angles are defaults. Giving the angle 180 will | ||

create the torus from 0 to 180, that is, a half torus. | create the torus from 0 to 180, that is, a half torus. | ||

− | ==== Creating a box or cuboid ==== | + | ==== Creating a box or cuboid ==== <!--T:58--> |

− | |||

Using '''makeBox(length,width,height,[pnt,dir])'''. | Using '''makeBox(length,width,height,[pnt,dir])'''. | ||

− | By default pnt=Vector(0,0,0) and dir=Vector(0,0,1) | + | By default pnt=Vector(0,0,0) and dir=Vector(0,0,1). |

− | + | </translate> | |

− | + | {{Code|code= | |

− | + | box = Part.makeBox(10,10,10) | |

− | + | len(box.Vertexes) | |

− | + | > 8 | |

+ | }} | ||

+ | <translate> | ||

+ | ==== Creating a Sphere ==== <!--T:59--> | ||

Using '''makeSphere(radius,[pnt, dir, angle1,angle2,angle3])'''. By default | Using '''makeSphere(radius,[pnt, dir, angle1,angle2,angle3])'''. By default | ||

pnt=Vector(0,0,0), dir=Vector(0,0,1), angle1=-90, angle2=90 and angle3=360. | pnt=Vector(0,0,0), dir=Vector(0,0,1), angle1=-90, angle2=90 and angle3=360. | ||

angle1 and angle2 are the vertical minimum and maximum of the sphere, angle3 | angle1 and angle2 are the vertical minimum and maximum of the sphere, angle3 | ||

− | is the sphere diameter | + | is the sphere diameter. |

− | + | </translate> | |

− | + | {{Code|code= | |

− | + | sphere = Part.makeSphere(10) | |

− | + | hemisphere = Part.makeSphere(10,Base.Vector(0,0,0),Base.Vector(0,0,1),-90,90,180) | |

+ | }} | ||

+ | <translate> | ||

+ | ==== Creating a Cylinder ==== <!--T:60--> | ||

Using '''makeCylinder(radius,height,[pnt,dir,angle])'''. By default | Using '''makeCylinder(radius,height,[pnt,dir,angle])'''. By default | ||

− | pnt=Vector(0,0,0),dir=Vector(0,0,1) and angle=360 | + | pnt=Vector(0,0,0),dir=Vector(0,0,1) and angle=360. |

− | + | </translate>{{Code|code= | |

− | + | cylinder = Part.makeCylinder(5,20) | |

− | + | partCylinder = Part.makeCylinder(5,20,Base.Vector(20,0,0),Base.Vector(0,0,1),180) | |

− | + | }}<translate> | |

+ | ==== Creating a Cone ==== <!--T:61--> | ||

Using '''makeCone(radius1,radius2,height,[pnt,dir,angle])'''. By default | Using '''makeCone(radius1,radius2,height,[pnt,dir,angle])'''. By default | ||

− | pnt=Vector(0,0,0), dir=Vector(0,0,1) and angle=360 | + | pnt=Vector(0,0,0), dir=Vector(0,0,1) and angle=360. |

− | |||

− | |||

− | |||

− | == | + | </translate>{{Code|code= |

+ | cone = Part.makeCone(10,0,20) | ||

+ | semicone = Part.makeCone(10,0,20,Base.Vector(20,0,0),Base.Vector(0,0,1),180) | ||

+ | }}<translate> | ||

+ | == Modifying shapes == <!--T:62--> | ||

There are several ways to modify shapes. Some are simple transformation operations | There are several ways to modify shapes. Some are simple transformation operations | ||

− | such as moving or rotating shapes, | + | such as moving or rotating shapes, others are more complex, such as unioning and |

− | subtracting one shape from another. | + | subtracting one shape from another. |

− | |||

− | |||

− | === | + | === Transform operations === <!--T:63--> |

+ | ==== Translating a shape ==== <!--T:64--> | ||

Translating is the act of moving a shape from one place to another. | Translating is the act of moving a shape from one place to another. | ||

Any shape (edge, face, cube, etc...) can be translated the same way: | Any shape (edge, face, cube, etc...) can be translated the same way: | ||

− | + | </translate>{{Code|code= | |

− | + | myShape = Part.makeBox(2,2,2) | |

+ | myShape.translate(Base.Vector(2,0,0)) | ||

+ | }}<translate> | ||

+ | <!--T:65--> | ||

This will move our shape "myShape" 2 units in the x direction. | This will move our shape "myShape" 2 units in the x direction. | ||

− | ==== Rotating a shape ==== | + | ==== Rotating a shape ==== <!--T:66--> |

− | |||

To rotate a shape, you need to specify the rotation center, the axis, | To rotate a shape, you need to specify the rotation center, the axis, | ||

and the rotation angle: | and the rotation angle: | ||

− | + | </translate>{{Code|code= | |

+ | myShape.rotate(Vector(0,0,0),Vector(0,0,1),180) | ||

+ | }}<translate> | ||

+ | <!--T:67--> | ||

The above code will rotate the shape 180 degrees around the Z Axis. | The above code will rotate the shape 180 degrees around the Z Axis. | ||

− | ==== Generic transformations with matrixes ==== | + | ==== Generic transformations with matrixes ==== <!--T:68--> |

− | |||

A matrix is a very convenient way to store transformations in the 3D | A matrix is a very convenient way to store transformations in the 3D | ||

world. In a single matrix, you can set translation, rotation and scaling | world. In a single matrix, you can set translation, rotation and scaling | ||

values to be applied to an object. For example: | values to be applied to an object. For example: | ||

− | + | </translate>{{Code|code= | |

− | + | myMat = Base.Matrix() | |

− | + | myMat.move(Base.Vector(2,0,0)) | |

+ | myMat.rotateZ(math.pi/2) | ||

+ | }}<translate> | ||

+ | <!--T:69--> | ||

Note: FreeCAD matrixes work in radians. Also, almost all matrix operations | Note: FreeCAD matrixes work in radians. Also, almost all matrix operations | ||

− | that take a vector can also take | + | that take a vector can also take three numbers, so these two lines do the same thing: |

− | + | </translate>{{Code|code= | |

− | + | myMat.move(2,0,0) | |

+ | myMat.move(Base.Vector(2,0,0)) | ||

+ | }}<translate> | ||

− | + | <!--T:70--> | |

− | methods | + | Once our matrix is set, we can apply it to our shape. FreeCAD provides two |

+ | methods for doing that: transformShape() and transformGeometry(). The difference | ||

is that with the first one, you are sure that no deformations will occur (see | is that with the first one, you are sure that no deformations will occur (see | ||

− | "scaling a shape" below). | + | "scaling a shape" below). We can apply our transformation like this: |

− | + | </translate>{{Code|code= | |

+ | myShape.transformShape(myMat) | ||

+ | }}<translate> | ||

+ | <!--T:71--> | ||

or | or | ||

− | + | </translate>{{Code|code= | |

− | + | myShape.transformGeometry(myMat) | |

− | + | }}<translate> | |

+ | ==== Scaling a shape ==== <!--T:72--> | ||

Scaling a shape is a more dangerous operation because, unlike translation | Scaling a shape is a more dangerous operation because, unlike translation | ||

or rotation, scaling non-uniformly (with different values for x, y and z) | or rotation, scaling non-uniformly (with different values for x, y and z) | ||

can modify the structure of the shape. For example, scaling a circle with | can modify the structure of the shape. For example, scaling a circle with | ||

a higher value horizontally than vertically will transform it into an | a higher value horizontally than vertically will transform it into an | ||

− | ellipse, which behaves mathematically very | + | ellipse, which behaves mathematically very differently. For scaling, we |

can't use the transformShape, we must use transformGeometry(): | can't use the transformShape, we must use transformGeometry(): | ||

− | + | </translate>{{Code|code= | |

− | + | myMat = Base.Matrix() | |

− | + | myMat.scale(2,1,1) | |

+ | myShape=myShape.transformGeometry(myMat) | ||

+ | }}<translate> | ||

− | === Boolean Operations === | + | === Boolean Operations === <!--T:73--> |

− | |||

− | |||

+ | ==== Subtraction ==== <!--T:74--> | ||

Subtracting a shape from another one is called "cut" in OCC/FreeCAD jargon | Subtracting a shape from another one is called "cut" in OCC/FreeCAD jargon | ||

and is done like this: | and is done like this: | ||

− | + | </translate>{{Code|code= | |

− | + | cylinder = Part.makeCylinder(3,10,Base.Vector(0,0,0),Base.Vector(1,0,0)) | |

− | + | sphere = Part.makeSphere(5,Base.Vector(5,0,0)) | |

+ | diff = cylinder.cut(sphere) | ||

+ | }}<translate> | ||

− | ==== Intersection ==== | + | ==== Intersection ==== <!--T:75--> |

− | + | The same way, the intersection between two shapes is called "common" and is done | |

− | The same way, the intersection between | ||

this way: | this way: | ||

− | + | </translate>{{Code|code= | |

− | + | cylinder1 = Part.makeCylinder(3,10,Base.Vector(0,0,0),Base.Vector(1,0,0)) | |

− | + | cylinder2 = Part.makeCylinder(3,10,Base.Vector(5,0,-5),Base.Vector(0,0,1)) | |

− | + | common = cylinder1.common(cylinder2) | |

− | + | }}<translate> | |

+ | ==== Union ==== <!--T:76--> | ||

Union is called "fuse" and works the same way: | Union is called "fuse" and works the same way: | ||

− | + | </translate>{{Code|code= | |

− | + | cylinder1 = Part.makeCylinder(3,10,Base.Vector(0,0,0),Base.Vector(1,0,0)) | |

− | + | cylinder2 = Part.makeCylinder(3,10,Base.Vector(5,0,-5),Base.Vector(0,0,1)) | |

− | + | fuse = cylinder1.fuse(cylinder2) | |

− | + | }}<translate> | |

+ | ==== Section ==== <!--T:77--> | ||

A Section is the intersection between a solid shape and a plane shape. | A Section is the intersection between a solid shape and a plane shape. | ||

− | It will return an intersection curve, a compound | + | It will return an intersection curve, a compound curve composed of edges. |

− | |||

− | |||

− | |||

− | |||

− | |||

− | |||

− | |||

− | |||

− | |||

− | |||

− | ==== | + | </translate>{{Code|code= |

+ | cylinder1 = Part.makeCylinder(3,10,Base.Vector(0,0,0),Base.Vector(1,0,0)) | ||

+ | cylinder2 = Part.makeCylinder(3,10,Base.Vector(5,0,-5),Base.Vector(0,0,1)) | ||

+ | section = cylinder1.section(cylinder2) | ||

+ | section.Wires | ||

+ | > [] | ||

+ | section.Edges | ||

+ | > [<Edge object at 0D87CFE8>, <Edge object at 019564F8>, <Edge object at 0D998458>, | ||

+ | <Edge object at 0D86DE18>, <Edge object at 0D9B8E80>, <Edge object at 012A3640>, | ||

+ | <Edge object at 0D8F4BB0>] | ||

+ | }}<translate> | ||

− | Extrusion is the act of "pushing" a flat shape in a certain direction resulting in | + | ==== Extrusion ==== <!--T:78--> |

+ | Extrusion is the act of "pushing" a flat shape in a certain direction, resulting in | ||

a solid body. Think of a circle becoming a tube by "pushing it out": | a solid body. Think of a circle becoming a tube by "pushing it out": | ||

− | + | </translate>{{Code|code= | |

− | + | circle = Part.makeCircle(10) | |

+ | tube = circle.extrude(Base.Vector(0,0,2)) | ||

+ | }}<translate> | ||

+ | <!--T:79--> | ||

If your circle is hollow, you will obtain a hollow tube. If your circle is actually | If your circle is hollow, you will obtain a hollow tube. If your circle is actually | ||

− | a disc | + | a disc with a filled face, you will obtain a solid cylinder: |

− | |||

− | |||

− | |||

− | |||

− | == | + | </translate>{{Code|code= |

+ | wire = Part.Wire(circle) | ||

+ | disc = Part.Face(wire) | ||

+ | cylinder = disc.extrude(Base.Vector(0,0,2)) | ||

+ | }}<translate> | ||

+ | == Exploring shapes == <!--T:80--> | ||

You can easily explore the topological data structure: | You can easily explore the topological data structure: | ||

− | + | </translate>{{Code|code= | |

− | + | import Part | |

− | + | b = Part.makeBox(100,100,100) | |

− | + | b.Wires | |

− | + | w = b.Wires[0] | |

− | + | w | |

− | + | w.Wires | |

− | + | w.Vertexes | |

− | + | Part.show(w) | |

− | + | w.Edges | |

− | + | e = w.Edges[0] | |

− | + | e.Vertexes | |

− | + | v = e.Vertexes[0] | |

+ | v.Point | ||

+ | }}<translate> | ||

+ | <!--T:81--> | ||

By typing the lines above in the python interpreter, you will gain a good | By typing the lines above in the python interpreter, you will gain a good | ||

understanding of the structure of Part objects. Here, our makeBox() command | understanding of the structure of Part objects. Here, our makeBox() command | ||

Line 554: | Line 767: | ||

see the vertexes. Straight edges have only two vertexes, obviously. | see the vertexes. Straight edges have only two vertexes, obviously. | ||

− | === Edge analysis === | + | === Edge analysis === <!--T:82--> |

− | |||

In case of an edge, which is an arbitrary curve, it's most likely you want to | In case of an edge, which is an arbitrary curve, it's most likely you want to | ||

do a discretization. In FreeCAD the edges are parametrized by their lengths. | do a discretization. In FreeCAD the edges are parametrized by their lengths. | ||

That means you can walk an edge/curve by its length: | That means you can walk an edge/curve by its length: | ||

− | + | </translate>{{Code|code= | |

− | + | import Part | |

− | + | box = Part.makeBox(100,100,100) | |

− | + | anEdge = box.Edges[0] | |

+ | print anEdge.Length | ||

+ | }}<translate> | ||

+ | <!--T:83--> | ||

Now you can access a lot of properties of the edge by using the length as a | Now you can access a lot of properties of the edge by using the length as a | ||

position. That means if the edge is 100mm long the start position is 0 and | position. That means if the edge is 100mm long the start position is 0 and | ||

the end position 100. | the end position 100. | ||

− | + | </translate>{{Code|code= | |

− | + | anEdge.tangentAt(0.0) # tangent direction at the beginning | |

− | + | anEdge.valueAt(0.0) # Point at the beginning | |

− | + | anEdge.valueAt(100.0) # Point at the end of the edge | |

− | + | anEdge.derivative1At(50.0) # first derivative of the curve in the middle | |

− | + | anEdge.derivative2At(50.0) # second derivative of the curve in the middle | |

− | + | anEdge.derivative3At(50.0) # third derivative of the curve in the middle | |

− | + | anEdge.centerOfCurvatureAt(50) # center of the curvature for that position | |

− | + | anEdge.curvatureAt(50.0) # the curvature | |

− | + | anEdge.normalAt(50) # normal vector at that position (if defined) | |

− | + | }}<translate> | |

+ | === Using the selection === <!--T:84--> | ||

Here we see now how we can use the selection the user did in the viewer. | Here we see now how we can use the selection the user did in the viewer. | ||

− | First of all we create a box and | + | First of all we create a box and show it in the viewer. |

− | + | </translate>{{Code|code= | |

− | + | import Part | |

− | + | Part.show(Part.makeBox(100,100,100)) | |

+ | Gui.SendMsgToActiveView("ViewFit") | ||

+ | }}<translate> | ||

− | + | <!--T:85--> | |

− | iterate all selected objects and their sub elements: | + | Now select some faces or edges. With this script you can |

+ | iterate over all selected objects and their sub elements: | ||

− | + | </translate>{{Code|code= | |

− | + | for o in Gui.Selection.getSelectionEx(): | |

− | + | print o.ObjectName | |

− | + | for s in o.SubElementNames: | |

− | + | print "name: ",s | |

− | + | for s in o.SubObjects: | |

+ | print "object: ",s | ||

+ | }}<translate> | ||

+ | <!--T:86--> | ||

Select some edges and this script will calculate the length: | Select some edges and this script will calculate the length: | ||

− | + | </translate>{{Code|code= | |

− | + | length = 0.0 | |

− | + | for o in Gui.Selection.getSelectionEx(): | |

− | + | for s in o.SubObjects: | |

− | + | length += s.Length | |

+ | print "Length of the selected edges:" ,length | ||

+ | }}<translate> | ||

− | == Complete example: The OCC bottle == | + | == Complete example: The OCC bottle == <!--T:87--> |

− | + | A typical example found in the | |

− | A typical example found | + | [http://www.opencascade.com/doc/occt-6.9.0/overview/html/occt__tutorial.html#sec1 OpenCasCade Technology Tutorial] |

− | [http://www.opencascade. | ||

is how to build a bottle. This is a good exercise for FreeCAD too. In fact, | is how to build a bottle. This is a good exercise for FreeCAD too. In fact, | ||

− | you | + | if you follow our example below and the OCC page simultaneously, you will |

− | + | see how well OCC structures are implemented in FreeCAD. The complete script | |

− | below is also included in FreeCAD installation (inside the Mod/Part folder) and | + | below is also included in the FreeCAD installation (inside the Mod/Part folder) and |

can be called from the python interpreter by typing: | can be called from the python interpreter by typing: | ||

− | + | </translate>{{Code|code= | |

− | + | import Part | |

− | + | import MakeBottle | |

− | + | bottle = MakeBottle.makeBottle() | |

+ | Part.show(bottle) | ||

+ | }}<translate> | ||

+ | |||

+ | === The complete script === <!--T:88--> | ||

+ | Here is the complete MakeBottle script: | ||

− | = | + | </translate>{{Code|code= |

+ | import Part, FreeCAD, math | ||

+ | from FreeCAD import Base | ||

− | + | def makeBottle(myWidth=50.0, myHeight=70.0, myThickness=30.0): | |

+ | aPnt1=Base.Vector(-myWidth/2.,0,0) | ||

+ | aPnt2=Base.Vector(-myWidth/2.,-myThickness/4.,0) | ||

+ | aPnt3=Base.Vector(0,-myThickness/2.,0) | ||

+ | aPnt4=Base.Vector(myWidth/2.,-myThickness/4.,0) | ||

+ | aPnt5=Base.Vector(myWidth/2.,0,0) | ||

+ | |||

+ | aArcOfCircle = Part.Arc(aPnt2,aPnt3,aPnt4) | ||

+ | aSegment1=Part.LineSegment(aPnt1,aPnt2) | ||

+ | aSegment2=Part.LineSegment(aPnt4,aPnt5) | ||

+ | aEdge1=aSegment1.toShape() | ||

+ | aEdge2=aArcOfCircle.toShape() | ||

+ | aEdge3=aSegment2.toShape() | ||

+ | aWire=Part.Wire([aEdge1,aEdge2,aEdge3]) | ||

+ | |||

+ | aTrsf=Base.Matrix() | ||

+ | aTrsf.rotateZ(math.pi) # rotate around the z-axis | ||

+ | |||

+ | aMirroredWire=aWire.transformGeometry(aTrsf) | ||

+ | myWireProfile=Part.Wire([aWire,aMirroredWire]) | ||

+ | myFaceProfile=Part.Face(myWireProfile) | ||

+ | aPrismVec=Base.Vector(0,0,myHeight) | ||

+ | myBody=myFaceProfile.extrude(aPrismVec) | ||

+ | myBody=myBody.makeFillet(myThickness/12.0,myBody.Edges) | ||

+ | neckLocation=Base.Vector(0,0,myHeight) | ||

+ | neckNormal=Base.Vector(0,0,1) | ||

+ | myNeckRadius = myThickness / 4. | ||

+ | myNeckHeight = myHeight / 10 | ||

+ | myNeck = Part.makeCylinder(myNeckRadius,myNeckHeight,neckLocation,neckNormal) | ||

+ | myBody = myBody.fuse(myNeck) | ||

+ | |||

+ | faceToRemove = 0 | ||

+ | zMax = -1.0 | ||

+ | |||

+ | for xp in myBody.Faces: | ||

+ | try: | ||

+ | surf = xp.Surface | ||

+ | if type(surf) == Part.Plane: | ||

+ | z = surf.Position.z | ||

+ | if z > zMax: | ||

+ | zMax = z | ||

+ | faceToRemove = xp | ||

+ | except: | ||

+ | continue | ||

+ | |||

+ | myBody = myBody.makeFillet(myThickness/12.0,myBody.Edges) | ||

+ | |||

+ | return myBody | ||

− | + | el = makeBottle() | |

− | + | Part.show(el) | |

− | + | }}<translate> | |

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− | === Detailed explanation === | + | === Detailed explanation === <!--T:89--> |

− | + | </translate>{{Code|code= | |

− | + | import Part, FreeCAD, math | |

+ | from FreeCAD import Base | ||

+ | }}<translate> | ||

− | We will need,of course, the Part module, but also the FreeCAD.Base module, | + | <!--T:90--> |

+ | We will need, of course, the Part module, but also the FreeCAD.Base module, | ||

which contains basic FreeCAD structures like vectors and matrixes. | which contains basic FreeCAD structures like vectors and matrixes. | ||

− | + | </translate>{{Code|code= | |

− | + | def makeBottle(myWidth=50.0, myHeight=70.0, myThickness=30.0): | |

− | + | aPnt1=Base.Vector(-myWidth/2.,0,0) | |

− | + | aPnt2=Base.Vector(-myWidth/2.,-myThickness/4.,0) | |

− | + | aPnt3=Base.Vector(0,-myThickness/2.,0) | |

− | + | aPnt4=Base.Vector(myWidth/2.,-myThickness/4.,0) | |

+ | aPnt5=Base.Vector(myWidth/2.,0,0) | ||

+ | }}<translate> | ||

+ | <!--T:91--> | ||

Here we define our makeBottle function. This function can be called without | Here we define our makeBottle function. This function can be called without | ||

arguments, like we did above, in which case default values for width, height, | arguments, like we did above, in which case default values for width, height, | ||

Line 697: | Line 932: | ||

for building our base profile. | for building our base profile. | ||

− | + | </translate>{{Code|code= | |

− | + | aArcOfCircle = Part.Arc(aPnt2,aPnt3,aPnt4) | |

− | + | aSegment1=Part.LineSegment(aPnt1,aPnt2) | |

+ | aSegment2=Part.LineSegment(aPnt4,aPnt5) | ||

+ | }}<translate> | ||

− | Here we actually define the geometry: an arc, made of | + | <!--T:92--> |

− | line segments, made of | + | Here we actually define the geometry: an arc, made of three points, and two |

+ | line segments, made of two points. | ||

− | + | </translate>{{Code|code= | |

− | + | aEdge1=aSegment1.toShape() | |

− | + | aEdge2=aArcOfCircle.toShape() | |

− | + | aEdge3=aSegment2.toShape() | |

+ | aWire=Part.Wire([aEdge1,aEdge2,aEdge3]) | ||

+ | }}<translate> | ||

+ | <!--T:93--> | ||

Remember the difference between geometry and shapes? Here we build | Remember the difference between geometry and shapes? Here we build | ||

− | shapes out of our construction geometry. | + | shapes out of our construction geometry. Three edges (edges can be straight |

or curved), then a wire made of those three edges. | or curved), then a wire made of those three edges. | ||

− | + | </translate>{{Code|code= | |

− | + | aTrsf=Base.Matrix() | |

− | + | aTrsf.rotateZ(math.pi) # rotate around the z-axis | |

− | + | aMirroredWire=aWire.transformGeometry(aTrsf) | |

+ | myWireProfile=Part.Wire([aWire,aMirroredWire]) | ||

+ | }}<translate> | ||

− | + | <!--T:94--> | |

− | the same way, we can just mirror what we did | + | So far we have built only a half profile. Instead of building the whole profile |

− | + | the same way, we can just mirror what we did and glue both halves together. | |

+ | We first create a matrix. A matrix is a very common way to apply transformations | ||

to objects in the 3D world, since it can contain in one structure all basic | to objects in the 3D world, since it can contain in one structure all basic | ||

− | transformations that 3D objects can | + | transformations that 3D objects can undergo (move, rotate and scale). |

− | + | After we create the matrix we mirror it, then we create a copy of our wire | |

with that transformation matrix applied to it. We now have two wires, and | with that transformation matrix applied to it. We now have two wires, and | ||

we can make a third wire out of them, since wires are actually lists of edges. | we can make a third wire out of them, since wires are actually lists of edges. | ||

− | + | </translate>{{Code|code= | |

− | + | myFaceProfile=Part.Face(myWireProfile) | |

− | + | aPrismVec=Base.Vector(0,0,myHeight) | |

− | + | myBody=myFaceProfile.extrude(aPrismVec) | |

+ | myBody=myBody.makeFillet(myThickness/12.0,myBody.Edges) | ||

+ | }}<translate> | ||

+ | <!--T:95--> | ||

Now that we have a closed wire, it can be turned into a face. Once we have a face, | Now that we have a closed wire, it can be turned into a face. Once we have a face, | ||

− | we can extrude it. | + | we can extrude it. In doing so, we make a solid. Then we apply a nice little |

fillet to our object because we care about good design, don't we? | fillet to our object because we care about good design, don't we? | ||

− | + | </translate>{{Code|code= | |

− | + | neckLocation=Base.Vector(0,0,myHeight) | |

− | + | neckNormal=Base.Vector(0,0,1) | |

− | + | myNeckRadius = myThickness / 4. | |

− | + | myNeckHeight = myHeight / 10 | |

− | + | myNeck = Part.makeCylinder(myNeckRadius,myNeckHeight,neckLocation,neckNormal) | |

− | + | }}<translate> | |

+ | |||

+ | <!--T:96--> | ||

+ | At this point, the body of our bottle is made, but we still need to create a neck. So we | ||

make a new solid, with a cylinder. | make a new solid, with a cylinder. | ||

− | + | </translate>{{Code|code= | |

+ | myBody = myBody.fuse(myNeck) | ||

+ | }}<translate> | ||

− | The fuse operation, which in other | + | <!--T:97--> |

+ | The fuse operation, which in other applications is sometimes called a union, is very | ||

powerful. It will take care of gluing what needs to be glued and remove parts that | powerful. It will take care of gluing what needs to be glued and remove parts that | ||

need to be removed. | need to be removed. | ||

− | + | </translate>{{Code|code= | |

+ | return myBody | ||

+ | }}<translate> | ||

− | Then, we return our Part solid as the result of our function. | + | <!--T:98--> |

− | + | Then, we return our Part solid as the result of our function. | |

− | + | </translate>{{Code|code= | |

− | + | el = makeBottle() | |

+ | Part.show(el) | ||

+ | }}<translate> | ||

− | + | <!--T:99--> | |

+ | Finally, we call the function to actually create the part, then make it visible. | ||

− | + | ==Box pierced== <!--T:100--> | |

+ | Here is a complete example of building a pierced box. | ||

− | + | <!--T:101--> | |

+ | The construction is done one side at a time; when the cube is finished, it is hollowed out by cutting a cylinder through it. | ||

+ | </translate>{{Code|code= | ||

+ | import Draft, Part, FreeCAD, math, PartGui, FreeCADGui, PyQt4 | ||

+ | from math import sqrt, pi, sin, cos, asin | ||

+ | from FreeCAD import Base | ||

+ | |||

+ | size = 10 | ||

+ | poly = Part.makePolygon( [ (0,0,0), (size, 0, 0), (size, 0, size), (0, 0, size), (0, 0, 0)]) | ||

+ | |||

+ | face1 = Part.Face(poly) | ||

+ | face2 = Part.Face(poly) | ||

+ | face3 = Part.Face(poly) | ||

+ | face4 = Part.Face(poly) | ||

+ | face5 = Part.Face(poly) | ||

+ | face6 = Part.Face(poly) | ||

+ | |||

+ | myMat = FreeCAD.Matrix() | ||

+ | myMat.rotateZ(math.pi/2) | ||

+ | face2.transformShape(myMat) | ||

+ | face2.translate(FreeCAD.Vector(size, 0, 0)) | ||

+ | |||

+ | myMat.rotateZ(math.pi/2) | ||

+ | face3.transformShape(myMat) | ||

+ | face3.translate(FreeCAD.Vector(size, size, 0)) | ||

+ | |||

+ | myMat.rotateZ(math.pi/2) | ||

+ | face4.transformShape(myMat) | ||

+ | face4.translate(FreeCAD.Vector(0, size, 0)) | ||

+ | |||

+ | myMat = FreeCAD.Matrix() | ||

+ | myMat.rotateX(-math.pi/2) | ||

+ | face5.transformShape(myMat) | ||

+ | |||

+ | face6.transformShape(myMat) | ||

+ | face6.translate(FreeCAD.Vector(0,0,size)) | ||

+ | |||

+ | myShell = Part.makeShell([face1,face2,face3,face4,face5,face6]) | ||

+ | |||

+ | mySolid = Part.makeSolid(myShell) | ||

+ | mySolidRev = mySolid.copy() | ||

+ | mySolidRev.reverse() | ||

+ | |||

+ | myCyl = Part.makeCylinder(2,20) | ||

+ | myCyl.translate(FreeCAD.Vector(size/2, size/2, 0)) | ||

+ | |||

+ | cut_part = mySolidRev.cut(myCyl) | ||

+ | |||

+ | Part.show(cut_part) | ||

+ | }}<translate> | ||

+ | |||

+ | == Loading and Saving == <!--T:102--> | ||

There are several ways to save your work in the Part module. You can | There are several ways to save your work in the Part module. You can | ||

of course save your FreeCAD document, but you can also save Part | of course save your FreeCAD document, but you can also save Part | ||

objects directly to common CAD formats, such as BREP, IGS, STEP and STL. | objects directly to common CAD formats, such as BREP, IGS, STEP and STL. | ||

+ | <!--T:103--> | ||

Saving a shape to a file is easy. There are exportBrep(), exportIges(), | Saving a shape to a file is easy. There are exportBrep(), exportIges(), | ||

− | exportStl() and exportStep() methods | + | exportStl() and exportStep() methods available for all shape objects. |

So, doing: | So, doing: | ||

− | + | </translate>{{Code|code= | |

− | + | import Part | |

− | + | s = Part.makeBox(0,0,0,10,10,10) | |

+ | s.exportStep("test.stp") | ||

+ | }}<translate> | ||

+ | |||

+ | <!--T:104--> | ||

+ | will save our box into a STEP file. To load a BREP, | ||

+ | IGES or STEP file: | ||

+ | |||

+ | </translate>{{Code|code= | ||

+ | import Part | ||

+ | s = Part.Shape() | ||

+ | s.read("test.stp") | ||

+ | }}<translate> | ||

− | + | <!--T:105--> | |

− | + | To convert an '''.stp''' file to an '''.igs''' file: | |

+ | </translate>{{Code|code= | ||

import Part | import Part | ||

s = Part.Shape() | s = Part.Shape() | ||

− | s.read(" | + | s.read("file.stp") # incoming file igs, stp, stl, brep |

+ | s.exportIges("file.igs") # outbound file igs | ||

+ | }}<translate> | ||

+ | <!--T:106--> | ||

Note that importing or opening BREP, IGES or STEP files can also be done | Note that importing or opening BREP, IGES or STEP files can also be done | ||

− | directly from the File | + | directly from the File → Open or File → Import menu, while exporting |

− | + | can be done with File → Export. | |

− | |||

− | |||

− | {{ | + | <!--T:107--> |

+ | {{Docnav|Mesh Scripting|Mesh to Part}} | ||

− | [[Category:Poweruser Documentation]] | + | </translate> |

− | [[Category:Python Code]] | + | {{Userdocnavi{{#translation:}}}} |

− | + | [[Category:Poweruser Documentation{{#translation:}}]] | |

+ | [[Category:Python Code{{#translation:}}]] | ||

+ | {{clear}} |

## Latest revision as of 12:29, 3 March 2020

This page describes several methods for creating and modifying Part shapes from python. Before reading this page, if you are new to python, it is a good idea to read about python scripting and how python scripting works in FreeCAD.

## Introduction

Here we will explain to you how to control the Part Module directly from the FreeCAD Python interpreter, or from any external script. The basics about Topological data scripting are described in Part Module Explaining the concepts. Be sure to browse the Scripting section and the FreeCAD Scripting Basics pages if you need more information about how python scripting works in FreeCAD.

### Class Diagram

This is a Unified Modeling Language (UML) overview of the most important classes of the Part module:

### Geometry

The geometric objects are the building block of all topological objects:

**Geom**Base class of the geometric objects**Line**A straight line in 3D, defined by starting point and end point**Circle**Circle or circle segment defined by a center point and start and end point**......**And soon some more

### Topology

The following topological data types are available:

**Compound**A group of any type of topological object.**Compsolid**A composite solid is a set of solids connected by their faces. It expands the notions of WIRE and SHELL to solids.**Solid**A part of space limited by shells. It is three dimensional.**Shell**A set of faces connected by their edges. A shell can be open or closed.**Face**In 2D it is part of a plane; in 3D it is part of a surface. Its geometry is constrained (trimmed) by contours. It is two dimensional.**Wire**A set of edges connected by their vertices. It can be an open or closed contour depending on whether the edges are linked or not.**Edge**A topological element corresponding to a restrained curve. An edge is generally limited by vertices. It has one dimension.**Vertex**A topological element corresponding to a point. It has zero dimension.**Shape**A generic term covering all of the above.

### Quick example : Creating simple topology

We will now create a topology by constructing it out of simpler geometry.
As a case study we use a part as seen in the picture which consists of
four vertexes, two circles and two lines.

#### Creating Geometry

First we have to create the distinct geometric parts of this wire.
And we have to take care that the vertexes of the geometric parts
are at the **same** position. Otherwise later on we might not be
able to connect the geometric parts to a topology!

So we create first the points:

from FreeCAD import Base V1 = Base.Vector(0,10,0) V2 = Base.Vector(30,10,0) V3 = Base.Vector(30,-10,0) V4 = Base.Vector(0,-10,0)

#### Arc

To create an arc of circle we make a helper point and create the arc of
circle through three points:

VC1 = Base.Vector(-10,0,0) C1 = Part.Arc(V1,VC1,V4) # and the second one VC2 = Base.Vector(40,0,0) C2 = Part.Arc(V2,VC2,V3)

#### Line

The line segment can be created very simple out of the points:

L1 = Part.LineSegment(V1,V2) # and the second one L2 = Part.LineSegment(V3,V4)

*Note: in FreeCAD 0.16 Part.Line was used, for FreeCAD 0.17 Part.LineSegment has to be used*

#### Putting it all together

The last step is to put the geometric base elements together and bake a topological shape:

S1 = Part.Shape([C1,L1,C2,L2])

#### Make a prism

Now extrude the wire in a direction and make an actual 3D shape:

W = Part.Wire(S1.Edges) P = W.extrude(Base.Vector(0,0,10))

#### Show it all

Part.show(P)

## Creating basic shapes

You can easily create basic topological objects with the "make...()" methods from the Part Module:

b = Part.makeBox(100,100,100) Part.show(b)

Other make...() methods available:

**makeBox(l,w,h)**: Makes a box located in p and pointing into the direction d with the dimensions (l,w,h)**makeCircle(radius)**: Makes a circle with a given radius**makeCone(radius1,radius2,height)**: Makes a cone with the given radii and height**makeCylinder(radius,height)**: Makes a cylinder with a given radius and height.**makeLine((x1,y1,z1),(x2,y2,z2))**: Makes a line from two points**makePlane(length,width)**: Makes a plane with length and width**makePolygon(list)**: Makes a polygon from a list of points**makeSphere(radius)**: Makes a sphere with a given radius**makeTorus(radius1,radius2)**: Makes a torus with the given radii

See the Part API page for a complete list of available methods of the Part module.

#### Importing the needed modules

First we need to import the Part module so we can use its contents in python. We'll also import the Base module from inside the FreeCAD module:

import Part from FreeCAD import Base

#### Creating a Vector

Vectors are one of the most important pieces of information when building shapes. They usually contain three numbers (but not necessarily always): the x, y and z cartesian coordinates. You create a vector like this:

myVector = Base.Vector(3,2,0)

We just created a vector at coordinates x=3, y=2, z=0. In the Part module, vectors are used everywhere. Part shapes also use another kind of point representation called Vertex which is simply a container for a vector. You access the vector of a vertex like this:

myVertex = myShape.Vertexes[0] print myVertex.Point > Vector (3, 2, 0)

#### Creating an Edge

An edge is nothing but a line with two vertexes:

edge = Part.makeLine((0,0,0), (10,0,0)) edge.Vertexes > [<Vertex object at 01877430>, <Vertex object at 014888E0>]

Note: You can also create an edge by passing two vectors:

vec1 = Base.Vector(0,0,0) vec2 = Base.Vector(10,0,0) line = Part.LineSegment(vec1,vec2) edge = line.toShape()

You can find the length and center of an edge like this:

edge.Length > 10.0 edge.CenterOfMass > Vector (5, 0, 0)

#### Putting the shape on screen

So far we created an edge object, but it doesn't appear anywhere on the screen. This is because the FreeCAD 3D scene only displays what you tell it to display. To do that, we use this simple method:

Part.show(edge)

The show function creates an object in our FreeCAD document and assigns our "edge" shape to it. Use this whenever it is time to display your creation on screen.

#### Creating a Wire

A wire is a multi-edge line and can be created from a list of edges or even a list of wires:

edge1 = Part.makeLine((0,0,0), (10,0,0)) edge2 = Part.makeLine((10,0,0), (10,10,0)) wire1 = Part.Wire([edge1,edge2]) edge3 = Part.makeLine((10,10,0), (0,10,0)) edge4 = Part.makeLine((0,10,0), (0,0,0)) wire2 = Part.Wire([edge3,edge4]) wire3 = Part.Wire([wire1,wire2]) wire3.Edges > [<Edge object at 016695F8>, <Edge object at 0197AED8>, <Edge object at 01828B20>, <Edge object at 0190A788>] Part.show(wire3)

Part.show(wire3) will display the 4 edges that compose our wire. Other useful information can be easily retrieved:

wire3.Length > 40.0 wire3.CenterOfMass > Vector (5, 5, 0) wire3.isClosed() > True wire2.isClosed() > False

#### Creating a Face

Only faces created from closed wires will be valid. In this example, wire3 is a closed wire but wire2 is not a closed wire (see above)

face = Part.Face(wire3) face.Area > 99.999999999999972 face.CenterOfMass > Vector (5, 5, 0) face.Length > 40.0 face.isValid() > True sface = Part.Face(wire2) face.isValid() > False

Only faces will have an area, not wires nor edges.

#### Creating a Circle

A circle can be created as simply as this:

circle = Part.makeCircle(10) circle.Curve > Circle (Radius : 10, Position : (0, 0, 0), Direction : (0, 0, 1))

If you want to create it at a certain position and with a certain direction:

ccircle = Part.makeCircle(10, Base.Vector(10,0,0), Base.Vector(1,0,0)) ccircle.Curve > Circle (Radius : 10, Position : (10, 0, 0), Direction : (1, 0, 0))

ccircle will be created at distance 10 from the x origin and will be facing outwards along the x axis. Note: makeCircle only accepts Base.Vector() for the position and normal parameters, not tuples. You can also create part of the circle by giving a start and an end angle:

from math import pi arc1 = Part.makeCircle(10, Base.Vector(0,0,0), Base.Vector(0,0,1), 0, 180) arc2 = Part.makeCircle(10, Base.Vector(0,0,0), Base.Vector(0,0,1), 180, 360)

Both arc1 and arc2 jointly will make a circle. Angles should be provided in degrees; if you have radians simply convert them using the formula: degrees = radians * 180/PI or using python's math module (after doing import math, of course):

degrees = math.degrees(radians)

#### Creating an Arc along points

Unfortunately there is no makeArc function, but we have the Part.Arc function to create an arc through three points. It creates an arc object joining the start point to the end point through the middle point. The arc object's .toShape() function must be called to get an edge object, the same as when using Part.LineSegment instead of Part.makeLine.

arc = Part.Arc(Base.Vector(0,0,0),Base.Vector(0,5,0),Base.Vector(5,5,0)) arc > <Arc object> arc_edge = arc.toShape()

Arc only accepts Base.Vector() for points but not tuples. arc_edge is what we want which we can display using Part.show(arc_edge). You can also obtain an arc by using a portion of a circle:

from math import pi circle = Part.Circle(Base.Vector(0,0,0),Base.Vector(0,0,1),10) arc = Part.Arc(circle,0,pi)

Arcs are valid edges like lines, so they can be used in wires also.

#### Creating a polygon

A polygon is simply a wire with multiple straight edges. The makePolygon function takes a list of points and creates a wire through those points:

lshape_wire = Part.makePolygon([Base.Vector(0,5,0),Base.Vector(0,0,0),Base.Vector(5,0,0)])

#### Creating a Bézier curve

Bézier curves are used to model smooth curves using a series of poles (points) and optional weights. The function below makes a Part.BezierCurve from a series of FreeCAD.Vector points. (Note: when "getting" and "setting" a single pole or weight, indices start at 1, not 0.)

def makeBCurveEdge(Points): geomCurve = Part.BezierCurve() geomCurve.setPoles(Points) edge = Part.Edge(geomCurve) return(edge)

#### Creating a Plane

A Plane is simply a flat rectangular surface. The method used to create one is **makePlane(length,width,[start_pnt,dir_normal])**. By default
start_pnt = Vector(0,0,0) and dir_normal = Vector(0,0,1). Using dir_normal = Vector(0,0,1)
will create the plane facing in the positive z axis direction, while dir_normal = Vector(1,0,0) will create the
plane facing in the positive x axis direction:

plane = Part.makePlane(2,2) plane ><Face object at 028AF990> plane = Part.makePlane(2, 2, Base.Vector(3,0,0), Base.Vector(0,1,0)) plane.BoundBox > BoundBox (3, 0, 0, 5, 0, 2)

BoundBox is a cuboid enclosing the plane with a diagonal starting at (3,0,0) and ending at (5,0,2). Here the BoundBox thickness along the y axis is zero, since our shape is totally flat.

Note: makePlane only accepts Base.Vector() for start_pnt and dir_normal but not tuples.

#### Creating an ellipse

There are several ways to create an ellipse:

Part.Ellipse()

Creates an ellipse with major radius 2 and minor radius 1 with the center at (0,0,0).

Part.Ellipse(Ellipse)

Creates a copy of the given ellipse.

Part.Ellipse(S1,S2,Center)

Creates an ellipse centered on the point Center, where the plane of the ellipse is defined by Center, S1 and S2, its major axis is defined by Center and S1, its major radius is the distance between Center and S1, and its minor radius is the distance between S2 and the major axis.

Part.Ellipse(Center,MajorRadius,MinorRadius)

Creates an ellipse with major and minor radii MajorRadius and MinorRadius, located in the plane defined by Center and the normal (0,0,1)

eli = Part.Ellipse(Base.Vector(10,0,0),Base.Vector(0,5,0),Base.Vector(0,0,0)) Part.show(eli.toShape())

In the above code we have passed S1, S2 and center. Similar to Arc, Ellipse creates an ellipse object but not edge, so we need to convert it into an edge using toShape() for display.

Note: Arc only accepts Base.Vector() for points but not tuples.

eli = Part.Ellipse(Base.Vector(0,0,0),10,5) Part.show(eli.toShape())

for the above Ellipse constructor we have passed center, MajorRadius and MinorRadius.

#### Creating a Torus

Using **makeTorus(radius1,radius2,[pnt,dir,angle1,angle2,angle])**.
By default pnt=Vector(0,0,0), dir=Vector(0,0,1), angle1=0, angle2=360 and angle=360.
Consider a torus as small circle sweeping along a big circle. Radius1 is the
radius of the big cirlce, radius2 is the radius of the small circle, pnt is the center
of the torus and dir is the normal direction. angle1 and angle2 are angles in
radians for the small circle; the last parameter angle is to make a section of
the torus:

torus = Part.makeTorus(10, 2)

The above code will create a torus with diameter 20 (radius 10) and thickness 4 (small circle radius 2)

tor=Part.makeTorus(10, 5, Base.Vector(0,0,0), Base.Vector(0,0,1), 0, 180)

The above code will create a slice of the torus.

tor=Part.makeTorus(10, 5, Base.Vector(0,0,0), Base.Vector(0,0,1), 0, 360, 180)

The above code will create a semi torus; only the last parameter is changed. i.e the angle and remaining angles are defaults. Giving the angle 180 will create the torus from 0 to 180, that is, a half torus.

#### Creating a box or cuboid

Using **makeBox(length,width,height,[pnt,dir])**.
By default pnt=Vector(0,0,0) and dir=Vector(0,0,1).

box = Part.makeBox(10,10,10) len(box.Vertexes) > 8

#### Creating a Sphere

Using **makeSphere(radius,[pnt, dir, angle1,angle2,angle3])**. By default
pnt=Vector(0,0,0), dir=Vector(0,0,1), angle1=-90, angle2=90 and angle3=360.
angle1 and angle2 are the vertical minimum and maximum of the sphere, angle3
is the sphere diameter.

sphere = Part.makeSphere(10) hemisphere = Part.makeSphere(10,Base.Vector(0,0,0),Base.Vector(0,0,1),-90,90,180)

#### Creating a Cylinder

Using **makeCylinder(radius,height,[pnt,dir,angle])**. By default
pnt=Vector(0,0,0),dir=Vector(0,0,1) and angle=360.

cylinder = Part.makeCylinder(5,20) partCylinder = Part.makeCylinder(5,20,Base.Vector(20,0,0),Base.Vector(0,0,1),180)

#### Creating a Cone

Using **makeCone(radius1,radius2,height,[pnt,dir,angle])**. By default
pnt=Vector(0,0,0), dir=Vector(0,0,1) and angle=360.

cone = Part.makeCone(10,0,20) semicone = Part.makeCone(10,0,20,Base.Vector(20,0,0),Base.Vector(0,0,1),180)

## Modifying shapes

There are several ways to modify shapes. Some are simple transformation operations such as moving or rotating shapes, others are more complex, such as unioning and subtracting one shape from another.

### Transform operations

#### Translating a shape

Translating is the act of moving a shape from one place to another. Any shape (edge, face, cube, etc...) can be translated the same way:

myShape = Part.makeBox(2,2,2) myShape.translate(Base.Vector(2,0,0))

This will move our shape "myShape" 2 units in the x direction.

#### Rotating a shape

To rotate a shape, you need to specify the rotation center, the axis, and the rotation angle:

myShape.rotate(Vector(0,0,0),Vector(0,0,1),180)

The above code will rotate the shape 180 degrees around the Z Axis.

#### Generic transformations with matrixes

A matrix is a very convenient way to store transformations in the 3D world. In a single matrix, you can set translation, rotation and scaling values to be applied to an object. For example:

myMat = Base.Matrix() myMat.move(Base.Vector(2,0,0)) myMat.rotateZ(math.pi/2)

Note: FreeCAD matrixes work in radians. Also, almost all matrix operations that take a vector can also take three numbers, so these two lines do the same thing:

myMat.move(2,0,0) myMat.move(Base.Vector(2,0,0))

Once our matrix is set, we can apply it to our shape. FreeCAD provides two methods for doing that: transformShape() and transformGeometry(). The difference is that with the first one, you are sure that no deformations will occur (see "scaling a shape" below). We can apply our transformation like this:

myShape.transformShape(myMat)

or

myShape.transformGeometry(myMat)

#### Scaling a shape

Scaling a shape is a more dangerous operation because, unlike translation or rotation, scaling non-uniformly (with different values for x, y and z) can modify the structure of the shape. For example, scaling a circle with a higher value horizontally than vertically will transform it into an ellipse, which behaves mathematically very differently. For scaling, we can't use the transformShape, we must use transformGeometry():

myMat = Base.Matrix() myMat.scale(2,1,1) myShape=myShape.transformGeometry(myMat)

### Boolean Operations

#### Subtraction

Subtracting a shape from another one is called "cut" in OCC/FreeCAD jargon and is done like this:

cylinder = Part.makeCylinder(3,10,Base.Vector(0,0,0),Base.Vector(1,0,0)) sphere = Part.makeSphere(5,Base.Vector(5,0,0)) diff = cylinder.cut(sphere)

#### Intersection

The same way, the intersection between two shapes is called "common" and is done this way:

cylinder1 = Part.makeCylinder(3,10,Base.Vector(0,0,0),Base.Vector(1,0,0)) cylinder2 = Part.makeCylinder(3,10,Base.Vector(5,0,-5),Base.Vector(0,0,1)) common = cylinder1.common(cylinder2)

#### Union

Union is called "fuse" and works the same way:

cylinder1 = Part.makeCylinder(3,10,Base.Vector(0,0,0),Base.Vector(1,0,0)) cylinder2 = Part.makeCylinder(3,10,Base.Vector(5,0,-5),Base.Vector(0,0,1)) fuse = cylinder1.fuse(cylinder2)

#### Section

A Section is the intersection between a solid shape and a plane shape. It will return an intersection curve, a compound curve composed of edges.

cylinder1 = Part.makeCylinder(3,10,Base.Vector(0,0,0),Base.Vector(1,0,0)) cylinder2 = Part.makeCylinder(3,10,Base.Vector(5,0,-5),Base.Vector(0,0,1)) section = cylinder1.section(cylinder2) section.Wires > [] section.Edges > [<Edge object at 0D87CFE8>, <Edge object at 019564F8>, <Edge object at 0D998458>, <Edge object at 0D86DE18>, <Edge object at 0D9B8E80>, <Edge object at 012A3640>, <Edge object at 0D8F4BB0>]

#### Extrusion

Extrusion is the act of "pushing" a flat shape in a certain direction, resulting in a solid body. Think of a circle becoming a tube by "pushing it out":

circle = Part.makeCircle(10) tube = circle.extrude(Base.Vector(0,0,2))

If your circle is hollow, you will obtain a hollow tube. If your circle is actually a disc with a filled face, you will obtain a solid cylinder:

wire = Part.Wire(circle) disc = Part.Face(wire) cylinder = disc.extrude(Base.Vector(0,0,2))

## Exploring shapes

You can easily explore the topological data structure:

import Part b = Part.makeBox(100,100,100) b.Wires w = b.Wires[0] w w.Wires w.Vertexes Part.show(w) w.Edges e = w.Edges[0] e.Vertexes v = e.Vertexes[0] v.Point

By typing the lines above in the python interpreter, you will gain a good understanding of the structure of Part objects. Here, our makeBox() command created a solid shape. This solid, like all Part solids, contains faces. Faces always contain wires, which are lists of edges that border the face. Each face has at least one closed wire (it can have more if the face has a hole). In the wire, we can look at each edge separately, and inside each edge, we can see the vertexes. Straight edges have only two vertexes, obviously.

### Edge analysis

In case of an edge, which is an arbitrary curve, it's most likely you want to do a discretization. In FreeCAD the edges are parametrized by their lengths. That means you can walk an edge/curve by its length:

import Part box = Part.makeBox(100,100,100) anEdge = box.Edges[0] print anEdge.Length

Now you can access a lot of properties of the edge by using the length as a position. That means if the edge is 100mm long the start position is 0 and the end position 100.

anEdge.tangentAt(0.0) # tangent direction at the beginning anEdge.valueAt(0.0) # Point at the beginning anEdge.valueAt(100.0) # Point at the end of the edge anEdge.derivative1At(50.0) # first derivative of the curve in the middle anEdge.derivative2At(50.0) # second derivative of the curve in the middle anEdge.derivative3At(50.0) # third derivative of the curve in the middle anEdge.centerOfCurvatureAt(50) # center of the curvature for that position anEdge.curvatureAt(50.0) # the curvature anEdge.normalAt(50) # normal vector at that position (if defined)

### Using the selection

Here we see now how we can use the selection the user did in the viewer. First of all we create a box and show it in the viewer.

import Part Part.show(Part.makeBox(100,100,100)) Gui.SendMsgToActiveView("ViewFit")

Now select some faces or edges. With this script you can iterate over all selected objects and their sub elements:

for o in Gui.Selection.getSelectionEx(): print o.ObjectName for s in o.SubElementNames: print "name: ",s for s in o.SubObjects: print "object: ",s

Select some edges and this script will calculate the length:

length = 0.0 for o in Gui.Selection.getSelectionEx(): for s in o.SubObjects: length += s.Length print "Length of the selected edges:" ,length

## Complete example: The OCC bottle

A typical example found in the OpenCasCade Technology Tutorial is how to build a bottle. This is a good exercise for FreeCAD too. In fact, if you follow our example below and the OCC page simultaneously, you will see how well OCC structures are implemented in FreeCAD. The complete script below is also included in the FreeCAD installation (inside the Mod/Part folder) and can be called from the python interpreter by typing:

import Part import MakeBottle bottle = MakeBottle.makeBottle() Part.show(bottle)

### The complete script

Here is the complete MakeBottle script:

import Part, FreeCAD, math from FreeCAD import Base def makeBottle(myWidth=50.0, myHeight=70.0, myThickness=30.0): aPnt1=Base.Vector(-myWidth/2.,0,0) aPnt2=Base.Vector(-myWidth/2.,-myThickness/4.,0) aPnt3=Base.Vector(0,-myThickness/2.,0) aPnt4=Base.Vector(myWidth/2.,-myThickness/4.,0) aPnt5=Base.Vector(myWidth/2.,0,0) aArcOfCircle = Part.Arc(aPnt2,aPnt3,aPnt4) aSegment1=Part.LineSegment(aPnt1,aPnt2) aSegment2=Part.LineSegment(aPnt4,aPnt5) aEdge1=aSegment1.toShape() aEdge2=aArcOfCircle.toShape() aEdge3=aSegment2.toShape() aWire=Part.Wire([aEdge1,aEdge2,aEdge3]) aTrsf=Base.Matrix() aTrsf.rotateZ(math.pi) # rotate around the z-axis aMirroredWire=aWire.transformGeometry(aTrsf) myWireProfile=Part.Wire([aWire,aMirroredWire]) myFaceProfile=Part.Face(myWireProfile) aPrismVec=Base.Vector(0,0,myHeight) myBody=myFaceProfile.extrude(aPrismVec) myBody=myBody.makeFillet(myThickness/12.0,myBody.Edges) neckLocation=Base.Vector(0,0,myHeight) neckNormal=Base.Vector(0,0,1) myNeckRadius = myThickness / 4. myNeckHeight = myHeight / 10 myNeck = Part.makeCylinder(myNeckRadius,myNeckHeight,neckLocation,neckNormal) myBody = myBody.fuse(myNeck) faceToRemove = 0 zMax = -1.0 for xp in myBody.Faces: try: surf = xp.Surface if type(surf) == Part.Plane: z = surf.Position.z if z > zMax: zMax = z faceToRemove = xp except: continue myBody = myBody.makeFillet(myThickness/12.0,myBody.Edges) return myBody el = makeBottle() Part.show(el)

### Detailed explanation

import Part, FreeCAD, math from FreeCAD import Base

We will need, of course, the Part module, but also the FreeCAD.Base module, which contains basic FreeCAD structures like vectors and matrixes.

def makeBottle(myWidth=50.0, myHeight=70.0, myThickness=30.0): aPnt1=Base.Vector(-myWidth/2.,0,0) aPnt2=Base.Vector(-myWidth/2.,-myThickness/4.,0) aPnt3=Base.Vector(0,-myThickness/2.,0) aPnt4=Base.Vector(myWidth/2.,-myThickness/4.,0) aPnt5=Base.Vector(myWidth/2.,0,0)

Here we define our makeBottle function. This function can be called without arguments, like we did above, in which case default values for width, height, and thickness will be used. Then, we define a couple of points that will be used for building our base profile.

aArcOfCircle = Part.Arc(aPnt2,aPnt3,aPnt4) aSegment1=Part.LineSegment(aPnt1,aPnt2) aSegment2=Part.LineSegment(aPnt4,aPnt5)

Here we actually define the geometry: an arc, made of three points, and two line segments, made of two points.

aEdge1=aSegment1.toShape() aEdge2=aArcOfCircle.toShape() aEdge3=aSegment2.toShape() aWire=Part.Wire([aEdge1,aEdge2,aEdge3])

Remember the difference between geometry and shapes? Here we build shapes out of our construction geometry. Three edges (edges can be straight or curved), then a wire made of those three edges.

aTrsf=Base.Matrix() aTrsf.rotateZ(math.pi) # rotate around the z-axis aMirroredWire=aWire.transformGeometry(aTrsf) myWireProfile=Part.Wire([aWire,aMirroredWire])

So far we have built only a half profile. Instead of building the whole profile the same way, we can just mirror what we did and glue both halves together. We first create a matrix. A matrix is a very common way to apply transformations to objects in the 3D world, since it can contain in one structure all basic transformations that 3D objects can undergo (move, rotate and scale). After we create the matrix we mirror it, then we create a copy of our wire with that transformation matrix applied to it. We now have two wires, and we can make a third wire out of them, since wires are actually lists of edges.

myFaceProfile=Part.Face(myWireProfile) aPrismVec=Base.Vector(0,0,myHeight) myBody=myFaceProfile.extrude(aPrismVec) myBody=myBody.makeFillet(myThickness/12.0,myBody.Edges)

Now that we have a closed wire, it can be turned into a face. Once we have a face, we can extrude it. In doing so, we make a solid. Then we apply a nice little fillet to our object because we care about good design, don't we?

neckLocation=Base.Vector(0,0,myHeight) neckNormal=Base.Vector(0,0,1) myNeckRadius = myThickness / 4. myNeckHeight = myHeight / 10 myNeck = Part.makeCylinder(myNeckRadius,myNeckHeight,neckLocation,neckNormal)

At this point, the body of our bottle is made, but we still need to create a neck. So we make a new solid, with a cylinder.

myBody = myBody.fuse(myNeck)

The fuse operation, which in other applications is sometimes called a union, is very powerful. It will take care of gluing what needs to be glued and remove parts that need to be removed.

return myBody

Then, we return our Part solid as the result of our function.

el = makeBottle() Part.show(el)

Finally, we call the function to actually create the part, then make it visible.

## Box pierced

Here is a complete example of building a pierced box.

The construction is done one side at a time; when the cube is finished, it is hollowed out by cutting a cylinder through it.

import Draft, Part, FreeCAD, math, PartGui, FreeCADGui, PyQt4 from math import sqrt, pi, sin, cos, asin from FreeCAD import Base size = 10 poly = Part.makePolygon( [ (0,0,0), (size, 0, 0), (size, 0, size), (0, 0, size), (0, 0, 0)]) face1 = Part.Face(poly) face2 = Part.Face(poly) face3 = Part.Face(poly) face4 = Part.Face(poly) face5 = Part.Face(poly) face6 = Part.Face(poly) myMat = FreeCAD.Matrix() myMat.rotateZ(math.pi/2) face2.transformShape(myMat) face2.translate(FreeCAD.Vector(size, 0, 0)) myMat.rotateZ(math.pi/2) face3.transformShape(myMat) face3.translate(FreeCAD.Vector(size, size, 0)) myMat.rotateZ(math.pi/2) face4.transformShape(myMat) face4.translate(FreeCAD.Vector(0, size, 0)) myMat = FreeCAD.Matrix() myMat.rotateX(-math.pi/2) face5.transformShape(myMat) face6.transformShape(myMat) face6.translate(FreeCAD.Vector(0,0,size)) myShell = Part.makeShell([face1,face2,face3,face4,face5,face6]) mySolid = Part.makeSolid(myShell) mySolidRev = mySolid.copy() mySolidRev.reverse() myCyl = Part.makeCylinder(2,20) myCyl.translate(FreeCAD.Vector(size/2, size/2, 0)) cut_part = mySolidRev.cut(myCyl) Part.show(cut_part)

## Loading and Saving

There are several ways to save your work in the Part module. You can of course save your FreeCAD document, but you can also save Part objects directly to common CAD formats, such as BREP, IGS, STEP and STL.

Saving a shape to a file is easy. There are exportBrep(), exportIges(), exportStl() and exportStep() methods available for all shape objects. So, doing:

import Part s = Part.makeBox(0,0,0,10,10,10) s.exportStep("test.stp")

will save our box into a STEP file. To load a BREP, IGES or STEP file:

import Part s = Part.Shape() s.read("test.stp")

To convert an **.stp** file to an **.igs** file:

import Part s = Part.Shape() s.read("file.stp") # incoming file igs, stp, stl, brep s.exportIges("file.igs") # outbound file igs

Note that importing or opening BREP, IGES or STEP files can also be done directly from the File → Open or File → Import menu, while exporting can be done with File → Export.

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