PartDesign: Body

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Descriere

PartDesign Body conține o serie de schițe, date și PartDesign features care formează un solid unic contiguu. Acesta oferă o Origine (cu planuri și axe standard) care pot fi utilizate de către funcții ca referințe. În plus, poate fi mișcat liber ca un întreg fără a face necesară mutarea funcțiilor individuale.

The Body provides an Origin object which includes local X, Y, and Z axes, and standard planes. These elements can be used as references to attach sketches and primitive objects.

Since the Body is supposed to be a single contiguous solid, it can be moved entirely as a unit, without moving the individual features. Multiple bodies can be placed inside Std Parts in order to create assemblies.

PartDesign Body tree.png PartDesign Body example.png

Left: the tree view showing the features that sequentially produce the final shape of the object. Right: the final object visible in the 3D view.


Cum se folosește

If no previous solid is selected:

  1. Press the PartDesign Body.svg Body button. An empty Body is created and automatically becomes active.
  2. Now you can press PartDesign NewSketch.svg New sketch to create a sketch in the Body that can be used with PartDesign Pad.svg Pad.
  3. Alternatively, add a primitive PartDesign Feature, for example, PartDesign AdditiveBox.svg Additive box.

If a solid object is selected:

  1. Press the PartDesign Body.svg Body button. A new Body is created containing a single Base Feature. This Base Feature element is a simple reference to another object previously created or imported into the document. See Base Feature for more information. An existing Body or PartDesign Feature cannot be selected when pressing PartDesign Body.svg Body.

Notes

  • If no Body currently exists when PartDesign NewSketch.svg New sketch is pressed, a new Body will be automatically created. If a Body already exists, it has to be made active before using PartDesign NewSketch.svg New sketch.
  • Double-click the Body in the tree view or open the context menu (right-click) and select Toggle active body to activate or deactivate the Body. If another Body is active, it will be deactivated. See active status for more information.

Proprietăți

A PartDesign Body (PartDesign::Body class) is derived from a Part Feature (Part::Feature class), therefore it shares all the latter's properties.

In addition to the properties described in Part Feature, the PartDesign Body has the following properties in the property editor.

Data

Base

  • DataTip (Link): the PartDesign Feature defined as "Tip", which is usually the last feature created in the Body. The Tip indicates the final shape of the Body, which is shown in the 3D view when ViewDisplay Mode Body is set to Tip. See Tip for more information.
  • DataBase Feature (Link): an external shape used as the first PartDesign Feature in the Body. It is usually set when dragging a solid object into an empty Body. If no solid is imported in this way, this property will be empty. See Base Feature for more information.
  • DataPlacement (Placement): the position of the object in the 3D view. The placement is defined by a Base point (vector), and a Rotation (axis and angle). See Placement.
  • DataGroup (LinkList): a list with the PartDesign Features in the Body.

Hidden properties Data

  • DataOrigin (Link): the App Origin object that is the positional reference for all elements listed in DataGroup.
  • Data_ Group Touched (Bool): whether the group is touched or not.

Also the hidden properties described in Part Feature.

View

  • ViewDisplay Mode Body: definește afișarea între două modalități:
    • Through (implicit) expune orice în interiorul corpului (features, datums, sketches, etc.). este mocalitatea utilizată în funcții aditive și editarea funcțiilor aflate în interiorul corpului .
    • Tip expune numai forma corpului în sine, conform Funcției Rezultante/Tip stabilite; orice altceva, inclusiv schițele, sunt ascunse vederii și nu pot fi afișate. Utilizare practică: "Tip" permite selectarea muchiilor și a fețelor corpului pentru a crea operațiuni de la alte Ateliere de lucru/Workbenches.
  • DataTip: afișează/setează funcția definită ca tip.
  • DataBase Feature: afișează/setează forma externă utilizată ca funcție de bază. Nu se aplică dacă funcția PartDesign este funcția de bază.
  • DataPlacement: specifică orientarea și poziția corpului în spațiul 3D. A se vedea Placement.
  • DataLabel: eticheta este numele dat de operație. Acest nume poate fi schimbat dacă vă este la îndemână.
  • DataGroup: listează obiectele referențiate în interiorul Corpului .
  • ViewDisplay Mode Body (Enumeration): sets the display mode specifically for the Body with one of two types.
    • Through (default) exposes all objects inside the Body, that is, sketches, PartDesign Features, datum objects, etc. This mode allows visualizing partial operations done inside the Body, and thus it is the recommended mode when adding and editing features. Select the specific feature, and the set ViewVisibility to True or press the Space bar on the keyboard.
    • Tip exposes only the final shape of the Body, which is defined by the DataTip property. Everything else, including sketches, partial features, datums, etc., is not displayed, even if they are visible in the tree view. This mode is recommended when the Body does not need to be modified further, so a fixed shape is shown. This mode is also recommended when you wish to select the sub-elements (vertices, edges, and faces) of the final shape to use with other workbenches' tools.

Body concept

Single contiguous solid

A PartDesign Body is intended to model a single contiguous solid. The meaning of "contiguous" is an element made in one piece, with no moving parts, or disconnected solids. Examples of contiguous solids are those that are manufactured from a single piece of raw material by a process of casting, cutting, or milling. For example, a nut, a washer, and a bolt each consists of a single solid piece of steel with no moving parts, so each can be modelled by a PartDesign Body. Objects that are created by welding two pieces can also be modelled by a single Body as long as the weld joint is not intended to break apart.

Once these contiguous solids are put together in some type of arrangement, then they become an "assembly". In an assembly, the objects are not fused together, but they are simply "stacked" or placed next to each other, and remain individual parts.

PartDesign Body contiguous separate.png PartDesign Body contiguous assembly.png

Left: three individual contiguous solids, each of them modelled by a PartDesign Body. Right: the individual Bodies put together in an assembly.


Feature editing

A PartDesign Body is intended to work by creating an initial solid, either from a sketch or from a primitive shape, and then modifying it through "features" to add or remove material from the previous shape. For a full explanation go to feature editing.

A PartDesign Body will perform an automatic fusion (union) of the solid elements inside of it. This means that (1) partial solids should be touching when created, and (2) disconnected solids are not allowed.

PartDesign Body two intersection.png PartDesign Body two fusion.png

Left: two individual solids that intersect each other. Right: a single PartDesign Body with two additive features; they are automatically fused together, so instead of intersecting, they form a single contiguous solid.


PartDesign Body non-contiguous.png

Left: two disconnected solids; this isn't a valid PartDesign Body. Right: two touching solids; this results in a valid PartDesign Body. The newer feature should always contact or intersect the previous feature so that it is fused to it, and becomes a single contiguous solid.


Note: other CAD programs like Catia allow discontiguous solids in the same "Body". As of v0.19, FreeCAD does not allow this. There has been discussions in the FreeCAD forum about lifting this restriction but no concrete decision has been made. If you'd like to know more or present different points of view, please discuss in the forum.

Detailed explanation of the properties

Active Status

Un document FreeCAD poate conține mai multe entități. Prin urmare, pentru a adăuga o funcție nouă unui anumit Corp, trebuie făcută activ. Un corp activ va fi afișat în arborescență cu o culoare de fundal albastru deschis. În v0.18, este numit ca fiind arborescența Model și va fi afișat și cu caractere aldine.

An open document can contain multiple Bodies. To add a new feature to a specific Body, it needs to be made active. An active body will be displayed in the tree view with the background color specified by the Active container value in the preferences editor (by default, light blue). An active body will also be shown in bold text.

To activate or de-activate a Body:

  • Double click on it on the tree view, or
  • Open the context menu (right click) and select Toggle active body.

Activarea unui Corp, de asemenea, comută automat interfața la Atelierul de lucru PartDesign, dacă nu era deja Atelierul de lucru activ.

PartDesign Body active.png

Document with two PartDesign Bodies, of which the second one is active.


Originea

Originea este formată din cele trei axe standard (X, Y, Z) și trei planuri standard (XY, XZ și YZ). Sketches can be attached to these planes, and planes along with axes can be used to create other datum (reference) geometry. Toate elementele din interiorul Corpului se referă la Originea Corpului; ceea ce înseamnă că corpul poate fi mișcat și rotit în raport cu sistemul global de coordonate fără a afecta amplasarea elementelor în interiorul corpului.

The Origin consists of the three standard axes (X, Y, Z) and three standard planes (XY, XZ and YZ). Sketches and other objects can be attached to these elements when creating them.

  1. Create the Body.
  2. If the Body is selected in the tree view, press PartDesign NewSketch.svg New sketch; the task panel will open to allow selecting one of the planes.
  3. If the Body is not selected, select the Origin instead and make it visible in the 3D view by pressing the Space bar in the keyboard. Also expand the Origin object to see the axes and planes.
  4. Select one of the planes, either in the tree view or in the 3D view, then press PartDesign NewSketch.svg New sketch. The sketch will be created on the chosen plane.

The same process can be used when creating auxiliary datum geometry like PartDesign Lines, PartDesign Planes, and PartDesign CoordinateSystems.

Note: the Origin is an App Origin object (App::Origin class), while the axes and planes are objects of type App::Line and App::Plane respectively. Each of these elements can be hidden and unhidden individually with the Space bar; this is useful to choose the correct reference when creating other objects.

Note 2: all elements inside the Body are referenced to the Body's Origin which means that the Body can be moved and rotated in reference to the global coordinate system without affecting the placement of the elements inside.

PartDesign Body Origin tree.png PartDesign Body Origin view.png

Left: PartDesign Body Origin in the tree view. Right: representation of the Origin elements in the 3D view.


Funcție de bază

Funcția de bază este prima funcție a PartDesign creată în Corp. Dar este posibil să se utilizeze o formă solidă, fie importată, fie modelată în alte Ateliere de lucru, ca element de bază la care se pot adăuga schițe și alte funcții(onalități).

The Base Feature is the first PartDesign Feature in the Body when the Body is based on another solid shape. This solid can be created by any workbench, or imported from an external file, for example, a STEP file.

PartDesign Body BaseFeature tree.png

PartDesign Bodies, each of them with a single Base Feature, which are taken from previously created solids.


To create the Base Feature:

  1. select a solid shape external to any Body, and
  2. press PartDesign Body.svg Body; this will create a new Body with a single Base Feature.

Note: you can't select an existing Body, or any of its features, when pressing PartDesign Body.svg Body.

If you already have a Body, you can create the Base Feature in this way:

  • in the tree view, pick an object, and drag and drop it inside the Body, or
  • in the property editor, edit the value of DataBase Feature by pressing the ellipsis ..., and choosing an object from the list. In this case you can choose an existing Body to be the Base Feature.

Note: dragging and dropping only works for Bodies which don't have a Base Feature already.

Note 2: if the Body already has several features, when you drag and drop the external solid, the Base Feature will be created at the beginning of the list of features, that is, it will be added to the beginning of the DataGroup property.

The Base Feature is entirely optional; it is only present when including an object from outside the Body. If no external solid is included, you can still build your shape using sketches, pads, primitive objects, and other PartDesign Features. In this case the DataBase Feature property remains empty.

PartDesign Body BaseFeature Tip.svg

Left: PartDesign Body with a Base Feature that is taken from an external solid object, and many subsequent PartDesign Features on top. Right: Body which doesn't have an explicit Base Feature.


Funcția Rezultantă/Vărf

Funcția rezultată este cea care este expusă în afara modelului(ceea ce se vede). Aceasta este automat ultima funcție din partea de jos a arborescenței. Dar, uneori, ar putea fi util să o înlocuiți cu o funcție anterioară în arborescența Corpului, cu efectul de a reveni în istoria sa; este posibil să adăugați funcții care ar fi trebuit adăugate anterior. În arborescența corpului Corpului, funcția rezultată poartă un punct verde cu o săgeată albă pe interior.

The Tip is the PartDesign Feature that is exposed outside the Body; that is, if another tool from any workbench (for example, Part SimpleCopy or Part Cut) needs to use the shape of the Body, it will use the shape of the Tip. Said in another way, the Tip is the final representation of the Body as if the parametric history didn't exist.

PartDesign Body Tip final.svg

Left: PartDesign Body with full parametric history including intermediate features. Right: the Tip is the final shape that can be exported from the Body, while omitting the model's history.


The Tip is automatically set to the last feature created in the Body. Nevertheless, it can also be set to any of the intermediate features by opening the tree view context menu (right-click) and choosing PartDesign MoveTip.svg Set tip, or by changing the Body's DataTip value in the property editor.

Changing the Tip in effect rolls back its history, making it possible to add features that should have been added earlier. It also exposes a different shape to external tools.

For more details, see the PartDesign MoveTip.png Move Tip page.

PartDesign Body Tip tree.png

Two PartDesign Bodies, each of them with PartDesign Features. The Tip is the last feature in them, and is marked with an overlay symbol.


Interacțiunea cu alte Ateliere

În mod implicit, obiectele aflate sub un corp pot fi selectate și, desigur, este necesar să editați și să adăugați caracteristici în PartDesign. Dar selectarea caracteristicilor unui Organism pentru a crea operațiuni de la alte Aeliere de lucru (cum ar fi Part or Draft) nu este recomandată, deoarece rezultatele pot fi neașteptate; în toate cazurile, va apărea o eroare cu mențiunea "Linkurile ies din domeniul de aplicare permis" în vizualizarea Raport.

By default, PartDesign Features inside a Body are selectable, as this is required to edit and add more features with the PartDesign Workbench tools. Nevertheless, selecting the individual features to use them with tools from other workbenches, like Part and Draft, is not advised, as the results may be unexpected; if this is done, in the report view an error message may appear, Links go out of the allowed scope.

Prin urmare, pentru interacțiunile cu alte bannere de lucru, numai corpul însuși ar trebui selectat din arborele Model. În cazurile în care este necesar să se selecteze topologia specifică pe corp (vârf, muchie, față), atunci proprietatea de vizualizare Display Mode Body poate fi comutată de la Through (implicit) la Tip. Această proprietate este accesibilă din panoul Vizualizare. În modul "Tip", accesul la obiectele din corp (funcții, date, schițe) este dezactivat; totul, dar caracteristica vârf va fi ascuns în vizualizarea 3D, indiferent de obiectul care este setat ca vizibil.

Odată ce operațiile din alte Ateliere de lucru au fost finalizate, nu uitați să resetați proprietatea Display Mode Body la Through pentru a putea edita corpul.

PartDesign Body Tip Display mode.svg

Left: when "Display Mode Body" is set to Through it is possible to select and perform operations with the individual PartDesign Features; in general, this is not recommended. Right: when "Display Mode Body" is set to Tip all selections and operations done on the Body will be done on the Tip, making sure only the final shape of the Body is exposed.


Managementul Vizibilității

Vizibilitatea Corpului înlătură vizibilitatea oricărui obiect pe care îl conține. Dacă corpul este ascuns, obiectele pe care le conține vor fi ascunse, chiar dacă vizibilitatea lor este setată la adevărat. Doar o funcție poate fi vizibilă la un moment dat. Selectarea unei funcții ascunse și apăsarea butonului space va face vizibilă și va ascunde automat funcția vizibilă anterior.

The Body's visibility supersedes the visibility of any object it contains. If the Body is hidden, the objects it contains will be hidden as well, even if their individual ViewVisibility property is set to True.

Multiple Sketches may be visible at one time, but only one PartDesign Feature (solid result) can be visible at a time. Selecting a hidden feature and pressing the Space bar in the keyboard will make it visible, and automatically hide the previously visible feature.

PartDesign Body Visibility.png

PartDesign Body: multiple Sketches may be visible simultaneously, but only one solid PartDesign Feature may be visible at one time, whether it is the Tip or not.


Attachment

PartDesign Features, just like planar objects, can be attached to different planes, usually the standard planes defined by the Body's Origin, or to custom PartDesign Planes.

Sketches are normally attached to a plane when they are created. In similar way, primitive features can also be attached. Attaching these objects to a plane allows them to be moved within the Body by changing their DataAttachment Offset property. For more information on the attachment modes see Part Attachment.

A PartDesign Feature that is not attached will be shown with a red overlay symbol next to their icon in the tree view.

PartDesign Body Feature attachment.png

PartDesign Body: PartDesign Features that are not attached to a plane or coordinate system will be shown with an overlay symbol next to their icon in the tree view.


Inheritance

A PartDesign Body is formally an instance of the class PartDesign::Body, whose parent is Part Feature (Part::Feature class) through the intermediate Part::BodyBase class, and is augmented with an Origin extension.

FreeCAD core objects.svg

Simplified diagram of the relationships between the core objects in the program. The PartDesign::Body object is intended to build parametric 3D solids, and thus is derived from the basic Part::Feature object, and has an Origin to control the placement of the features used inside of it.


Scripting

See also: FreeCAD Scripting Basics, and scripted objects.

See Part Feature for the general information on adding objects to the document

A PartDesign Body is created with the addObject() method of the document. Once a Body exists, PartDesign Features can be added to it with the addObject() or addObjects() methods of this Body.

import FreeCAD as App

doc = App.newDocument()
obj = App.ActiveDocument.addObject("PartDesign::Body", "Body")
obj.Label = "Custom label"

feat1 = App.ActiveDocument.addObject("PartDesign::AdditiveBox", "Box")
feat2 = App.ActiveDocument.addObject("PartDesign::AdditiveCylinder", "Cylinder")

obj.addObjects([feat1, feat2])
App.ActiveDocument.recompute()

In a document that has many Bodies, the active Body can be set using the setActiveObject method of the ActiveView. The first argument is the fixed string "pdbody", and the second argument is the Body object that should be made active.

import FreeCAD as App
import FreeCADGui as Gui

doc = App.newDocument()
obj1 = App.ActiveDocument.addObject("PartDesign::Body", "Body")
obj2 = App.ActiveDocument.addObject("PartDesign::Body", "Body")

Gui.ActiveDocument.ActiveView.setActiveObject("pdbody", obj1)
App.ActiveDocument.recompute()
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