Difference between revisions of "Mesh Workbench/zh"

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{{docnav|[[Inspection Workbench|Inspection Workbench]]|[[OpenSCAD Module|OpenSCAD Module]]|IconL=InspectionWorkbench.svg|IconR=OpenSCADWorkbench.svg}}
 
  
[[Image:Workbench_Mesh.svg|64px]]
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== Introduction ==
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[[Image:Workbench_Mesh.svg|thumb|128px|Mesh workbench icon]]
The [[Mesh Workbench|Mesh Workbench]] handles [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triangle_mesh triangle meshes]. Meshes are a special type of 3D object, composed of triangular faces connected by their vertices and edges.
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{{TOCright}}
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==Introduction==
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The [[Image:Workbench_Mesh.svg|24px]] [[Mesh Workbench|Mesh Workbench]] handles [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triangle_mesh triangle meshes]. Meshes are a special type of 3D object, composed of triangular faces connected by their vertices and edges.
  
 
Many 3D applications, like [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sketchup Sketchup], [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blender_(software) Blender], [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maya_(software) Maya] and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3d_max 3D Studio Max], use meshes as their primary type of 3D object. Since meshes are very simple objects, containing only vertices (points), edges and triangular faces, they are very easy to create, modify, subdivide, stretch, and can easily be passed from one application to another without any loss of details. In addition, since meshes contain very simple data, 3D applications can usually manage very large quantities of them without using a lot of resources. For these reasons, meshes are often the 3D object type of choice for applications dealing with movies, animation, and image creation.
 
Many 3D applications, like [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sketchup Sketchup], [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blender_(software) Blender], [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maya_(software) Maya] and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3d_max 3D Studio Max], use meshes as their primary type of 3D object. Since meshes are very simple objects, containing only vertices (points), edges and triangular faces, they are very easy to create, modify, subdivide, stretch, and can easily be passed from one application to another without any loss of details. In addition, since meshes contain very simple data, 3D applications can usually manage very large quantities of them without using a lot of resources. For these reasons, meshes are often the 3D object type of choice for applications dealing with movies, animation, and image creation.
  
However, in the field of engineering meshes present one big limitation: they are only made of surfaces, and have no mass information, so they don't behave as solids. This means that all solid-based operations, such as addition or subtraction, are difficult to perform on meshes. The Mesh Workbench is useful to import 3D data in mesh format, to analyse it, detect errors, and finally convert it to a solid, for use with the [[Part Workbench|Part Workbench]].
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However, in the field of engineering meshes present a big limitation: they cannot accurately define curved surfaces. This is why FreeCAD relies on [[wikipedia:Boundary representation|Brep]] instead. The Mesh Workbench offers some commands to directly manipulate meshes, but it is most often used to import 3D mesh data and convert it to a solid for use with the [[Image:Workbench_Part.svg|24px]] [[Part Workbench|Part Workbench]] or [[Image:Workbench_PartDesign.svg|24px]] [[PartDesign Workbench|PartDesign Workbench]].
  
{{TOCright}}
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[[Image:Mesh_example.jpg|500px]]
[[Image:Mesh_example.jpg|600px]]
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==Tools==
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All Mesh Workbench tools can be accessed from the '''Meshes''' menu. Some tools are also available in the '''Mesh tools''' toolbar.
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* [[Image:Mesh_Import.svg|32px]] [[Mesh_Import|Import mesh...]]: Imports a mesh object from a file.
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* [[Image:Mesh_Export.svg|32px]] [[Mesh_Export|Export mesh...]]: Exports a mesh object to a file.
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* [[Image:Mesh_FromPartShape.svg|32px]] [[Mesh_FromPartShape|Create mesh from shape...]]: Creates mesh objects from shape objects.
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* [[Image:Mesh_RemeshGmsh.svg|32px]] [[Mesh_RemeshGmsh|Refinement...]]: Remeshes a mesh object. {{Version|0.19}}
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* Analyze
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** [[Image:Mesh_Evaluation.svg|32px]] [[Mesh_Evaluation|Evaluate and repair mesh...]]: Evaluates and repairs a mesh object.
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** [[Image:Mesh_EvaluateFacet.svg|32px]] [[Mesh_EvaluateFacet|Face info]]: Shows information about faces of mesh objects.
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** [[Image:Mesh_CurvatureInfo.svg|32px]] [[Mesh_CurvatureInfo|Curvature info]]: Shows the absolute curvature of [[Mesh_VertexCurvature|curvature objects]] at selected points.
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** [[Image:Mesh_EvaluateSolid.svg|32px]] [[Mesh_EvaluateSolid|Check solid mesh]]: Checks if a mesh object is solid.
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** [[Image:Mesh_BoundingBox.svg|32px]] [[Mesh_BoundingBox|Boundings info...]]: Shows the bounding box coordinates of a mesh object.
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* [[Image:Mesh_VertexCurvature.svg|32px]] [[Mesh_VertexCurvature|Curvature plot]]: Creates Mesh Curvature objects for mesh objects.
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* [[Image:Mesh_HarmonizeNormals.svg|32px]] [[Mesh_HarmonizeNormals|Harmonize normals]]: Harmonizes the normals of mesh objects.
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* [[Image:Mesh_FlipNormals.svg|32px]] [[Mesh_FlipNormals|Flip normals]]: Flips the normals of mesh objects.
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* [[Image:Mesh_FillupHoles.svg|32px]] [[Mesh_FillupHoles|Fill holes...]]: Fills holes in mesh objects.
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* [[Image:Mesh_FillInteractiveHole.svg|32px]] [[Mesh_FillInteractiveHole|Close hole]]: Fills selected holes in mesh objects.
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* [[Image:Mesh_AddFacet.svg|32px]] [[Mesh_AddFacet|Add triangle]]: Adds faces along a boundary of an open mesh object.
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* [[Image:Mesh_RemoveComponents.svg|32px]] [[Mesh_RemoveComponents|Remove components...]]: Removes faces from mesh objects.
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* [[Image:Mesh_RemoveCompByHand.svg|32px]] [[Mesh_RemoveCompByHand|Remove components by hand...]]: Removes components from mesh objects.
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* [[Image:Mesh_Segmentation.svg|32px]] [[Mesh_Segmentation|Create mesh segments...]]: Creates separate mesh segments for specified surface types of a mesh object.
  
== Tools ==
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* [[Image:Mesh_SegmentationBestFit.svg|32px]] [[Mesh_SegmentationBestFit|Create mesh segments from best-fit surfaces...]]: Creates separate mesh segments for specified surface types of a mesh object, and can identify their parameters.
  
The Mesh Workbench has a simple interface; all its functions are grouped in the {{MenuCommand|Mesh}} menu.
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* [[Image:Mesh_Smoothing.svg|32px]] [[Mesh_Smoothing|Smooth...]]: Smooths mesh objects.
  
=== General tools ===
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* [[Image:Mesh_Decimating.svg|32px]] [[Mesh_Decimating|Decimation...]]: Reduces the number of faces in mesh objects. {{Version|0.19}}
* [[Image:Mesh_ImportMesh.png|32px]] [[Mesh Import|Import Mesh]]: Import meshes in several file formats
 
* [[Image:Mesh_ExportMesh.png|32px]] [[Mesh Export|Export Mesh]]: Export meshes in several file formats
 
* [[Image:Mesh MeshFromShape.png|32px]] [[Mesh MeshFromShape|Create Mesh from shape]]: Convert [[Part Module|Part]] objects into meshes
 
* [[Image:Mesh_CurvaturePlot.png|32px]] [[Mesh CurvaturePlot|Curvature Plot]]: Creates a curvature plot
 
* [[Image:Mesh HarmonizeNormals.png|32px]] [[Mesh HarmonizeNormals|Harmonize Normals]]: Harmonize normals
 
* [[Image:Mesh_FlipNormals.png|32px]] [[Mesh FlipNormals|Flip Normals]]: Flip [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surface_normal normals]
 
* [[Mesh FillHoles|Fill Holes...]]: Fill up holes
 
* [[Image:Mesh_FillInteractiveHole.png|32px]] [[Mesh FillInteractiveHole|Close hole]]: Close holes in meshes
 
* [[Mesh AddTriangle|Add triangle]]: Add triangle
 
* [[Image:Mesh_RemoveComponents.png|32px]] [[Mesh RemoveComponents|Remove components...]]: Remove components of meshes
 
* [[Mesh RemoveCompByHand|Remove components by hand...]]: Remove components of meshes by hand
 
* [[Mesh CreateMeshSegment|Create mesh segments...]]: Creates mesh segments
 
* [[Mesh Smooth|Smooth...]]: Smooth mesh
 
* [[Mesh Scale|Scale]]
 
  
=== Analyze ===
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* [[Image:Mesh_Scale.svg|32px]] [[Mesh_Scale|Scale...]]: Scales mesh objects.
Analysis of curvature, faces, and check if a mesh can be safely converted into a solid
 
* [[Mesh EvaluateRepair|Evaluate & Repair mesh...]]: Evaluates and repairs meshes
 
* [[Image:Mesh EvaluateFacet.png|32px]] [[Mesh EvaluateFacet|Face Info]]: Gives info on faces
 
* [[Mesh EvaluateCurvature|Curvature Info]]: Gives info on curvature
 
* [[Mesh EvaluateSolid|Check solid mesh]]: Checks the solid if it can be converted to a mesh
 
* [[Mesh BoundingBox|Boundings info...]]: Evaluates the bounding box of a mesh
 
  
=== Regular solid ===
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* [[Image:Mesh_BuildRegularSolid.svg|32px]] [[Mesh_BuildRegularSolid|Regular solid...]] Creates a regular parametric solid mesh object.
[[Image:Mesh_Regular_Solid.png|32px]] [[Mesh BuildRegularSolid|Regular solid...]] Create mesh primitives, like cubes, cylinders, cones, or spheres:
 
* [[Image:Mesh_Cube.png|32px]] [[Mesh_Cube|Mesh Cube]] Create a mesh cube
 
* [[Image:Mesh_Cylinder.png|32px]] [[Mesh_Cylinder|Mesh Cylinder]] Create a mesh cylinder
 
* [[Image:Mesh_Cone.png|32px]] [[Mesh_Cone|Mesh Cone]] Create a mesh cone
 
* [[Image:Mesh_Sphere.png|32px]] [[Mesh_Sphere|Mesh Sphere]] Create a mesh sphere
 
* [[Image:Mesh_Ellipsoid.png|32px]] [[Mesh_Ellipsoid|Mesh Ellipsoid]] Create a mesh ellipsoid
 
* [[Image:Mesh_Torus.png|32px]] [[Mesh_Torus|Mesh Torus]] Create a mesh torus
 
  
=== Boolean ===
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* Boolean
* [[Mesh Union|Union]]: Does a union (fusion) on meshes
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** [[Image:Mesh_Union.svg|32px]] [[Mesh_Union|Union]]: Creates a mesh object that is the union of two mesh objects.
* [[Mesh Intersection|Intersection]]: Does an intersection (common) on meshes
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** [[Image:Mesh_Intersection.svg|32px]] [[Mesh_Intersection|Intersection]]: Creates a mesh object that is the intersection of two mesh objects.
* [[Mesh Difference|Difference]]: Does a difference (cut) on meshes
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** [[Image:Mesh_Difference.svg|32px]] [[Mesh_Difference|Difference]]: Creates a mesh object that is the difference of two mesh objects.
  
=== Cutting ===
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* Cutting
* [[Image:Mesh_PolyCut.png|32px]] [[Mesh_PolyCut|Mesh PolyCut]]: Cut meshes along a line
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** [[Image:Mesh_PolyCut.svg|32px]] [[Mesh_PolyCut|Cut mesh]]: Cuts whole faces from mesh objects.
* [[Mesh TrimMesh|Trim mesh]]: Trims meshes
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** [[Image:Mesh_PolyTrim.svg|32px]] [[Mesh_PolyTrim|Trim mesh]]: Trims faces and parts of faces from mesh objects.
* [[Mesh TrimMeshWithPlane|Trim mesh with a plane]]: Trims meshes with a plane
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** [[Image:Mesh_TrimByPlane.svg|32px]] [[Mesh_TrimByPlane|Trim mesh with a plane]]: Trims faces and parts of faces on one side of a plane from a mesh object.
* Create section from mesh and plane
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** [[Image:Mesh_SectionByPlane.svg|32px]] [[Mesh_SectionByPlane|Create section from mesh and plane]]: Creates a cross section across a mesh object.
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** [[Image:Mesh_CrossSections.svg|32px]] [[Mesh_CrossSections|Cross-sections...]]: Creates multiple cross sections across mesh objects. {{Version|0.19}}
  
=== Other ===
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* [[Image:Mesh_Merge.svg|32px]] [[Mesh_Merge|Merge]]: Creates a mesh object by combining the meshes of two or more mesh objects.
* [[Mesh Merge|Merge]]: Merges meshes
 
* [[Mesh SelectMesh|Select Mesh]]: Selects meshes
 
* [[Mesh SplitMesh|Split Mesh]]: Splits meshes
 
* [[Image:Mesh MakeSegment.png|32px]] [[Mesh MakeSegment|Make segment]]: Makes a segment
 
  
== Preferences ==
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* [[Image:MeshPart_CreateFlatMesh.svg|32px]] [[MeshPart_CreateFlatMesh|Unwrap Mesh]]: Creates a flat representation of a mesh object. {{Version|0.19}}
* [[Image:Preferences-import-export.svg|32px]] [[Import_Export_Preference|Preference]] Import-Export
 
  
More mesh tools are available in the [[OpenSCAD Workbench|OpenSCAD Workbench]].
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* [[Image:MeshPart_CreateFlatFace.svg|32px]] [[MeshPart_CreateFlatFace|Unwrap Face]]: Creates a flat representation of a face of a shape object. {{Version|0.19}}
  
Meshes can also be handled by [[Mesh Scripting|Mesh Scripting]].
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==Preferences==
  
==Links==
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There are some [[Import_Export_Preferences#Mesh_Formats|export preferences related to Mesh Formats]] but these are not used by commands belonging to this workbench. They are used by the [[Std_Export|Std Export]] command.
  
* [[FreeCAD and Mesh Import|FreeCAD and Mesh Import]]
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Mesh Workbench preferences can be found in the following categories of the [[Preferences_Editor|Preferences Editor]]:
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* [[Image:Preferences-display.svg|32px]] [[Preferences_Editor#Display_settings|Display]]: On the [[Preferences_Editor#Mesh_view|Mesh view]] tab several preferences can be set.
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* [[Image:Preferences-openscad.svg|32px]] [[OpenSCAD_Preferences|OpenSCAD]]: The [[Mesh_Union|Mesh Union]], [[Mesh_Intersection|Mesh Intersection]] and [[Mesh_Difference|Mesh Difference]] commands require [http://www.openscad.org/ OpenSCAD] and use the '''OpenSCAD executable''' preference to find its executable.
  
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==Notes==
  
{{Mesh Tools navi}}
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* More mesh tools are available in the [[Image:Workbench_OpenSCAD.svg|24px]] [[OpenSCAD_Workbench|OpenSCAD Workbench]].
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* See [[Mesh_Scripting|Mesh Scripting]] to manipulate and create meshes using [[Python|Python]].
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* See also [[FreeCAD_and_Mesh_Import|FreeCAD and Mesh Import]]
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* See [[Asymptote|Asymptote]] to export meshes to the Asymptote format, which can be used in a LaTeX document.
  
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Latest revision as of 20:44, 18 September 2020

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Mesh workbench icon

Introduction

The Workbench Mesh.svg Mesh Workbench handles triangle meshes. Meshes are a special type of 3D object, composed of triangular faces connected by their vertices and edges.

Many 3D applications, like Sketchup, Blender, Maya and 3D Studio Max, use meshes as their primary type of 3D object. Since meshes are very simple objects, containing only vertices (points), edges and triangular faces, they are very easy to create, modify, subdivide, stretch, and can easily be passed from one application to another without any loss of details. In addition, since meshes contain very simple data, 3D applications can usually manage very large quantities of them without using a lot of resources. For these reasons, meshes are often the 3D object type of choice for applications dealing with movies, animation, and image creation.

However, in the field of engineering meshes present a big limitation: they cannot accurately define curved surfaces. This is why FreeCAD relies on Brep instead. The Mesh Workbench offers some commands to directly manipulate meshes, but it is most often used to import 3D mesh data and convert it to a solid for use with the Workbench Part.svg Part Workbench or Workbench PartDesign.svg PartDesign Workbench.

Mesh example.jpg

Tools

All Mesh Workbench tools can be accessed from the Meshes menu. Some tools are also available in the Mesh tools toolbar.

  • Mesh FillInteractiveHole.svg Close hole: Fills selected holes in mesh objects.
  • Mesh AddFacet.svg Add triangle: Adds faces along a boundary of an open mesh object.
  • Boolean
    • Mesh Union.svg Union: Creates a mesh object that is the union of two mesh objects.
    • Mesh Intersection.svg Intersection: Creates a mesh object that is the intersection of two mesh objects.
    • Mesh Difference.svg Difference: Creates a mesh object that is the difference of two mesh objects.
  • Mesh Merge.svg Merge: Creates a mesh object by combining the meshes of two or more mesh objects.

Preferences

There are some export preferences related to Mesh Formats but these are not used by commands belonging to this workbench. They are used by the Std Export command.

Mesh Workbench preferences can be found in the following categories of the Preferences Editor:

Notes