Erstellung von Benutzeroberflächen

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Intensivnutzer haben die Möglichkeit, Oberflächen erstellen um sie bei der Erstellung komplexer Werkzeuge für ihre benutzerdefinierten Erweiterungen zu unterstützen, wie z.B. Makros oder vollständige Arbeitsbereiche.

Benutzeroberflächen werden mit PySide erstellt, einer Bibliothek zur Verwendung von Qt mit Python.

FreeCAD creating interfaces.svg

Zwei allgemeine Methoden zur Erstellung von Schnittstellen, durch Einfügen der Schnittstelle in die Python Datei oder durch die Verwendung von .ui Dateien.


Es gibt typischerweise zwei Möglichkeiten, Benutzeroberflächen mit PySide zu erstellen.

Oberfläche in einer .ui Datei

In this method the interface is defined in a .ui file (an XML document that defines the structure of the interface), which is then imported into Python code that uses it. This is the recommended approach.

  • It allows the programmer to work with the graphical interface separately from the logic that will use it.
  • It allows anybody to look at the interface alone, that is, the .ui file, without having to run Python code.
  • The .ui file may be designed by anybody without programming knowledge.
  • The .ui interface can be used in a standalone window (modal), or in an embedded window (non-modal); therefore, this method is ideal to create custom task panels.
  • Since the .ui file just describes the "appearance" of the interface, it does not need to be tied to a particular programming language; it may be used both in Python and C++ code.

For examples on this method see Interface creation with UI files.

Oberfläche vollständig in Python Code

In this method the entire interface is defined by several Python calls.

  • This is an older way of working with interfaces.
  • This method produces very verbose code because many details of the interface need to be specified by hand.
  • It is not simple to separate the interface from the logic that uses that code, meaning that a user would need to run the Python file in the correct context in order to see how the interface would look.
  • This method has the advantage that several interfaces may be contained within a single document, at the expense of making the file very large.
  • This method is recommended only for small interfaces that don't define more than a few widgets, for example in macros.

Beispiele für diese Methode findest Du unter Dialogerstellung.