Quellcodeverwaltung

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Einführung

Das Haupt Quellcode Verwaltungswerkzeug für das FreeCAD Projekt ist Git, das in den meisten Betriebssystemen einfach über einen Paketmanager oder direkt von der Website von Git installiert werden kann. Es wird empfohlen, sich mit Git vertraut zu machen, bevor du direkt mit dem FreeCAD Quellcode arbeitest. Besuche die Seite Git Dokumentation für das Referenzhandbuch sowie das Pro Git Buch, um zu lernen, das System allgemein zu nutzen. Das vorliegende Dokument konzentriert sich auf die Verwendung von Git für die FreeCAD Entwicklung. Die Kompilierung von FreeCAD ist unter Kompilieren beschrieben.

Während Git in erster Linie eine Terminalanwendung ist, gibt es viele grafische Anwendungen, die die Arbeit mit Zweigen, das Anwenden von Patches und das Senden von Pull Anfragen an einen Master Zweig erleichtern. Beispiele sind gitk (die erste entwickelte grafische Benutzeroberfläche),gitg (Gnome),qgit (Qt), tig (Ncurses), git-cola und GitKraken (proprietär). Eine kurze Einführung in dieses Werkzeug findest Du unter Entwicklung von FreeCAD mit GitKraken.

Note: if any of this is starting to make you dizzy, there is a very good non-technical series on how to use git and Github called 'Git and Github for Poets'

Quellcodezugang

Jeder kann auf den FreeCAD Quellcode zugreifen und eine Kopie davon bekommen, aber nur die FreeCAD Projektmanager haben Schreibzugriff darauf. Du kannst eine Kopie des Codes erhalten, ihn studieren und nach Belieben ändern, aber wenn du möchtest, dass deine Änderungen in den offiziellen Quellcode aufgenommen werden, musst du eine "Pull Anfrage" gegen das Haupt Repositorium durchführen, damit deine Änderungen von den Verwaltern überprüft werden können. Diese Art der Entwicklung ist bekannt als der Dictator and Lieutenants Workflow, da die Kern Entwickler (Diktatoren) und betrauten Entwickler (Leutnante) den Code filtern, der von unabhängigen Entwicklern und Benutzern eingereicht wird.

Wenn deine Quellcode Änderungen signifikant sind, empfehlen wir dir, sie im Pull Request Abschnitt des FreeCAD-Forum zu erklären.

FreeCAD git workflow.svg

Typischer Arbeitsablauf zur Entwicklung von Code für FreeCAD; jeder kann den Code aus dem Haupt Repositorium beziehen, aber die Hauptentwickler haben das exklusive Recht, Eingaben anderer Entwickler zu überprüfen und zusammenzuführen.

Offizielles GitHub Repositorium

Der FreeCAD Quellcode wird in Github bereitgestellt, https://github.com/FreeCAD/FreeCAD

Um Code beitragen zu können, benötigst Du ein GitHub Konto.

In der Vergangenheit wurde der Quellcode in einem SVN Repositorium bereitgestellt, https://free-cad.svn.sourceforge.net/svnroot/free-cad. Dieser wurde am 10. Oktober 2011 mit commit 120ca87015 nach GitHub verschoben.

Daher gibt es viele Änderungen, die vor dieser Zeit vorgenommen wurden, die nicht in der modernen Git Commit Geschichte aufgezeichnet sind.

Setzen des Git Benutzernamens

Entwickler sollten Code in ihr persönliches Projektarchiv mit ihrem GitHub Benutzernamen eintragen. Wenn dieser nicht bereits global gesetzt ist, kannst du ihn lokal für das aktuelle Git Projektarchiv wie folgt setzen:

git config user.name "YOUR_NAME"
git config user.email GITHUB_USERNAME@users.noreply.github.com

Wobei "YOUR_NAME" deinen vollständigen Namen oder Spitznamen darstellt, der zur Identifizierung des Autors eines bestimmten Einsatzes verwendet wird, und GITHUB_USERNAME den Namen deines Accounts auf GitHub angibt.

Fernrepositorien

Bitte lies Was ist der Unterschied zwischen Ursprung und Upstream auf GitHub? (Stackoverflow) um den Unterschied zwischen origin und upstream im Kontext von Git zu verstehen. Dieser Abschnitt erklärt, wie man die richtigen Repositorien für die Entwicklung festlegt. Im Wesentlichen:

Diese Unterscheidung ist wichtig, da du zuerst Code in deine eigene Kopie des Repositoriums schreiben solltest, bevor du diese Änderungen in das offizielle Repositorium schreibst.

Basierend auf dem oben genannten, gibt es zwei Möglichkeiten, deine Git Entwicklungsumgebung einzurichten:

  • 1. Methode: Verzweigung auf GitHub und klone deine Verzweigung lokal
  • 2. Methode: Klone FreeCAD direkt auf deinen lokalen Rechner und passe die entfernten Server an

Wir empfehlen die 1. Methode, weil sie einen Schritt schneller ist.

1. Methode: Verzweigung auf GitHub und klone deine Abspaltung lokal =

Zuerst teile das FreeCAD Repositorium in GitHub ab, dann klone diese persönliche Abspaltung auf deinen Computer, und schließlich lege das upstream Repositorium fest.

  • Anmelden auf dein GitHub Konto.
  • Gehe zum offiziellen FreeCAD Repositorium: https://github.com/FreeCAD/FreeCAD
  • Drücke oben rechts auf der Seite die Taste "Fork". Dadurch wird eine persönliche Kopie des FreeCAD Repositoriums unter deinem GitHub Benutzernamen erstellt: https://github.com/GITHUB_USERNAME/FreeCAD
  • Klone auf deinem Rechner deine neu erstellte FreeCAD Fork. Er wird in einem Verzeichnis freecad-source erstellt.
git clone https://github.com/GITHUB_USERNAME/FreeCAD.git freecad-source
  • Sobald der Download abgeschlossen ist, gib das neue Quellverzeichnis ein und lege das upstream Repositorium fest.
cd  freecad-source
git remote add upstream https://github.com/FreeCAD/FreeCAD.git
  • Bestätige deine Fernrepositorien mit git remote -v; die Ausgabe sollte ähnlich wie diese sein
origin	https://github.com/GITHUB_USERNAME/FreeCAD.git (fetch)
origin	https://github.com/GITHUB_USERNAME/FreeCAD.git (push)
upstream	https://github.com/FreeCAD/FreeCAD.git (fetch)
upstream	https://github.com/FreeCAD/FreeCAD.git (push)
  • Jetzt kann die Entwicklung beginnen.

2. Methode: Klone FreeCAD direkt auf deinen lokalen Rechner

Zuerst wirst du das FreeCAD Repositorium in GitHub abspalten (engl.:fork ‚Gabel‘), jedoch wirst du das ursprüngliche FreeCAD Repositorium auf deinen lokalen Rechner klonen und dann deine Fernbedienungen über das Terminal ändern.

  • Anmelden auf dein GitHub Konto.
  • Gehe zum offiziellen FreeCAD Repositorium: https://github.com/FreeCAD/FreeCAD
  • Klicke oben rechts auf der Seite auf die "Fork" Schaltfläche. Dadurch wird eine persönliche Kopie des FreeCAD Repositoriums unter deinem GitHub Benutzernamen erstellt: https://github.com/GITHUB_USERNAME/FreeCAD
  • Klone das ursprüngliche FreeCAD Repositorium. Es wird in einem Verzeichnis freecad-source erstellt.
git clone https://github.com/FreeCAD/FreeCAD.git freecad-source
  • Sobald das Herunterladen abgeschlossen ist, gib das neue Quellverzeichnis ein und lege das Ursprungs Repositorium fest.
cd freecad-source
git remote add origin https://github.com/GITHUB_USERNAME/FreeCAD.git
  • Richte dann das upstream Repositorium ein.
git remote add upstream https://github.com/FreeCAD/FreeCAD.git
  • Bestätige deine Fernrepositorien mit git remote -v; die Ausgabe sollte ähnlich wie diese sein
origin	https://github.com/GITHUB_USERNAME/FreeCAD.git (fetch)
origin	https://github.com/GITHUB_USERNAME/FreeCAD.git (push)
upstream	https://github.com/FreeCAD/FreeCAD.git (fetch)
upstream	https://github.com/FreeCAD/FreeCAD.git (push)
  • Jetzt kann die Entwicklung beginnen.

Wenn die Fernrepositorien aus irgendeinem Grund zwar existieren, aber auf die falsche Adresse verweisen, kannst du die Situation durch Umbenennen des Namens des entfernten Repositoriums beheben. Beispielsweise sollte Ursprung auf deine persönliche Abspaltung zeigen; wenn er auf das ursprüngliche FreeCAD Repositorium zeigt, ändere den Namen dieses Fernrepositoriums in upstream und füge das Ursprungs Repositorium manuell hinzu.

git remote rename origin upstream
git remote add origin https://github.com/GITHUB_USERNAME/FreeCAD.git
git remote -v

Du kannst auch weitere Informationen mit dem Schlüsselwort anzeigen anzeigen.

git remote show origin
git remote show upstream

Git Entwicklungsprozess

Niemals auf deinem lokalen Master' Zweig entwickeln. Erstelle stattdessen einen lokalen Zweig für die Entwicklung, und führe diesen lokalen Zweig dann über eine Pull Anforderung mit dem vorgeschalteten Master Zweig zusammen. Lies bitte Git Verzweigung, Grundlegende Verzweigung und Zusammenführung und GitHub - An einem Projekt mitwirken, um mehr zu erfahren.


FreeCAD git branches workflow.svg

Generischer Arbeitsablauf zur Entwicklung von Code für FreeCAD unter Verwendung von git; das Haupt Repositorium wird online gespalten und auf einen Offline Rechner geklont (0); neue Zweige (1) werden verwendet, um lokale Änderungen und Ergänzungen des Codes zu übergeben (2); die Zweige werden auf den neuesten Online Code zurückgeführt (3), und dann zum entfernten Repositorium geschoben (4); dann wird eine Pull Anfrage erstellt, um den Code in das Haupt Repositorium einzufügen (5). Dann wird der persönliche Klon mit dem neuen Mastercode aktualisiert (a); dieser aktualisierte Mastercode wird ebenfalls an das Fernrepositorium (b) geschickt, um denselben Code sowohl online als auch offline zu haben.

Verzweigung

Anstatt an der Masterversion des Codes zu arbeiten, empfiehlt die bewährte Methode mit Git die Erstellung eines neuen Zweiges, wann immer du an einer neuen Funktion arbeiten willst. Zweige sind kostengünstig, sie kopieren nicht den gesamten Quellcode Baum, sondern erzeugen lediglich einen Zeitpunkt, an dem Sie Code schreiben werden; daher helfen Zweige dabei, die laufende Arbeit vom Hauptcode getrennt zu halten.

Die Verwendung eines neuen Zweigs erfolgt in zwei Schritten: Zuerst erstellest du den Zweig, und dann wechselst du zu ihm:

git branch myNewBranch
git checkout myNewBranch

Führe alternativ beide Schritte mit einer einzigen Anweisung aus:

git checkout -b myNewBranch

Jetzt kannst du Zweige mit checkout ändern, wann immer du daran arbeiten musst. Um die Zweige in deinem Projekt und dem aktuellen Zweig zu sehen, verwende die Operation branch allein oder füge -v oder -vv für weitere Informationen hinzu:

git branch
git branch -vv

Nachdem du Änderungen vorgenommen und diese Änderungen übertragen hast, verwende die Operation log mit den folgenden Optionen, um die Zweige zu visualisieren

git log --oneline --decorate --graph --all

Übergeben

Once you are inside a new branch, edit the source files that you want with a text editor. To see which files were modified use the status and diff operations; when you are satisfied with the modifications, save the changes with the commit operation:

git status
git diff
git commit -a

Unlike SVN, you need to specifically tell which files to commit; use the -a option to save changes in all files that were altered. Your text editor, for example, nano or vim, will open to allow you to write a commit message.

Alternatively add the message in the commit itself:

git commit -a -m "Fix the bug in the clone function."

If you create new files or directories, you must use the add operation first to add them to the local repository before committing the changes.

git add path
git commit -a

Where path can be any directory or file.

Writing good commit messages

You should try to work in small steps, that is, commit often, after a small addition in your code. If you cannot summarize your changes in one sentence, then it has probably been too long since you made a commit.

For big changes, it is important that you have helpful and useful descriptions of your work. FreeCAD has adopted a format mentioned in the Pro Git book, which consists of a short message, and then a larger descriptive paragraph.

Short (50 chars or less) summary of changes
 
 More detailed explanatory text, if necessary.  Wrap it to about 72
 characters or so.  In some contexts, the first line is treated as the
 subject of an email and the rest of the text as the body.  The blank
 line separating the summary from the body is critical (unless you omit
 the body entirely); tools like rebase can get confused if you run the
 two together.
 
 Further paragraphs come after blank lines. 
 
  - Bullet points are okay, too
 
  - Typically a hyphen or asterisk is used for the bullet, preceded by a
    single space, with blank lines in between, but conventions vary here

If you are doing a lot of related work in a branch, you should make many small commits (see a forum post). When you want to merge those changes into the master branch, you should issue

git log master..myNewBranch

um die einzelnen Übergabe Meldungen zu sehen. Dann kannst du eine Nachricht von hoher Qualität schreiben, wenn eine Zusammenführung durchgeführt wird.

When you merge to master use the --squash option and commit with your quality commit message. This will allow you to be very liberal with your commits and help to provide a good level of detail in commit messages without so many distinct descriptions.

Squashing commits

Squashing refers to the process of combining various consecutive commits into one. This may be desirable if you made many small commits that you want to present as a single commit, for example, when changing a single variable, correcting spelling mistakes, and adjusting the spacing of the code. You should squash only small commits to a single file; big changes to the code across multiple files should contain the full commit history.

With git log --oneline you can see many commits in sequence, with the newest commit on top. In this example, starting from "feature A" many commits are made to implement "feature B"; we would like to squash all commits belonging to "feature B" into one.

871adb OK, feature B is fully implemented
1c3317 Whoops, it is not ready yet...
87871a I'm almost ready!
643d0e Code cleanup
af2581 Fix this and that
4e9baa Good implementation
d94e78 Prepare the module for feature B
6394da Feature A

Use the rebase operation with the --interactive or -i option to select various commits and squash them. Use the hash of the commit just before the first one that you want to squash, in this case the one corresponding to "feature A".

git rebase -i 6394da

The command line editor, like nano or vim, will open to show you the commits again, now with the older commit on top. Before each commit, the word pick will be shown. Delete the word pick, and write the word squash or just the letter s instead, with the exception of the first entry; this commit is the oldest one, so all future commits will be squashed into it.

pick d94e78 Prepare the module for feature B
s 4e9baa Good implementation
s af2581 Fix this and that
s 643d0e Code cleanup
s 87871a I'm almost ready!
s 1c3317 Whoops, it is not ready yet...
s 871adb OK, feature B is fully implemented

Save the file and close the editor.

The editor will open up again. Now you can add a longer message that describes all changes as if they were a single commit. Save the file and close the editor once more. This will finish combining those commits into one, with the new commit message that you wrote.

You can use git log --oneline again to observe the new commit history. In this case only a single commit for "feature B" will appear, on top of the unmodified commit for "feature A".

c83d67 OK, feature B is fully implemented now, with proper module setup, and clean code.
6394da Feature A

Pushing your work to your GitHub repository

The local branches in your computer aren't automatically synchronized with the remote servers that you have specified as origin or upstream (see Remote repositories); you have to explicitly push the branches to the remote servers, for which you must have write access. Once you do this, the branches become public, and available for review by other developers.

For FreeCAD, you should push your local branch to the origin remote repository, that is, https://github.com/GITHUB_USERNAME/FreeCAD. You need to enter your username and password every time you push, unless you have set up Credential caching. Please read Pushing commits to a remote repository for more information.

git push origin myNewBranch

When you work with a single branch, you may need to interactively rebase, squash, and fix commits many times. In this case, your branch history will not be simple, and you will not be able to push it to the remote repository. You may get a message like the following, saying that it is not possible to do a "fast-forward" push.

error: failed to push some refs to 'https://github.com/USER/FreeCAD.git'
hint: Updates were rejected because a pushed branch tip is behind its remote
hint: counterpart. Check out this branch and integrate the remote changes
hint: (e.g. 'git pull ...') before pushing again.
hint: See the 'Note about fast-forwards' in 'git push --help' for details.

In order to finally push your branch to the remote repository you need to "force push" it. This will completely overwrite your remote branch with the actual branch that you have offline.

git push -f origin myNewBranch

The regular developer doesn't have write access to the upstream repository https://github.com/FreeCAD/FreeCAD, therefore, you should never push code to this remote server.

Rebasing from upstream

While you work on your own branch, the official FreeCAD code keeps "moving forward" with commits from other developers, and thus starts diverging from the code that you have in your personal fork.

      .-----A origin/myNewBranch
     / 
-----o-----------Z FreeCAD upstream/master

Therefore, when you are ready to merge your branch to the main FreeCAD repository, you must "rebase" your own copy of the repository, so that it is as close as possible to the official repository. See Git Branching - Rebasing for more information.

git checkout myNewBranch
git pull --rebase upstream master

This will download the code from the master branch of the upstream repository (the official FreeCAD source), and will merge it with your current branch (myNewBranch), so that your changes will appear on top of the latest official code. If nobody modified the same files that you did, then the merge will succeed without problems. If some files were changed at the same time by different people, there may be a conflict that needs to be resolved.

                  .-----A' origin/myNewBranch
                 /
-----o-----------Z FreeCAD upstream/master

To summarize, you need to be in the appropriate branch, rebase the upstream code, and then proceed with the push.

git checkout myNewBranch
git pull --rebase upstream master
git push origin myNewBranch

The pull operation is equivalent to a fetch followed by a merge. When the --rebase option is used, instead of doing a simple merge, it runs the rebase operation.

git pull upstream

git fetch upstream
git merge FETCH_HEAD
git pull --rebase upstream master

git fetch upstream
git rebase master

Merging the branch (pull request)

Once you have committed your changes locally, rebased your branch from the upstream repository, and pushed your branch online, you can initiate a "pull request". A pull request tells the administrators of the official FreeCAD repository that you want to merge the new code in your branch with the official code.

As soon as you push the code to your origin repository https://github.com/GITHUB_USERNAME/FreeCAD, GitHub will give you the option of comparing and creating a pull request against the upstream repository. By pressing Compare & pull request you will open an interface that will allow you to pick which repository is the "base", target of the merge, and which is the "head", your additional code. A quick check will be done by the system telling you if there are no conflicts with the files that you modified; if you worked on files that nobody has touched, your branch will be able to merge cleanly. In addition, it will show you a text editor so you can write a message documenting your changes; it will also display the number of commits in your branch, the number of files that were modified, and a view showing you the differences between the "base" and the "head" so that everybody can immediately see your intended modifications.

base repository: FreeCAD/FreeCAD    base: master  <----  head repository: GITHUB_USERNAME/FreeCAD    compare: myNewBranch

Able to merge. These branches can be automatically merged.

Click Create pull request to proceed. A message will appear indicating that some checks need to be done on the code. This is a system that compiles FreeCAD automatically and runs the unit tests. If the tests pass, the pull request will have a better chance of being merged into the main code, otherwise a report will be made indicating the errors encountered. See FreeCAD pull requests.

Some checks haven’t completed yet

* continuous-integration/travis-ci/pr Pending — The Travis CI build is in progress  |Required|

If the tests succeed, you will see a message such as the following

All checks have passed

* continuous-integration/travis-ci/pr — The Travis CI build passed  |Required|

This branch has no conflicts with the base branch Only those with write access to this repository can merge pull requests.

Now you must wait for the administrators to merge your branch; you will be notified when this happens.

Pull request successfully merged and closed

Youre all set  the GITHUB_USERNAME:myNewBranch branch can be safely deleted.
If you wish, you can also delete your fork of FreeCAD/FreeCAD.

If you wish, you may delete the branch that was just merged, or even your entire FreeCAD fork, as your own code is already included at the end of the master branch.

-----o-----------Z----A' FreeCAD upstream/master

Note: you may continue working (git commit -a) on the same branch while you wait for merge approval; if you git push again, a second merge commit will be queued in the same pull request, and another automated test will be done. That is, while your merges aren't yet approved by the administrators, you may keep pushing changes to your origin repository, and this will queue those commits in the same pull request to the upstream repository. Using a single pull request to queue many individual commits is often desirable for small changes. For big additions to the source code, you should create another branch, develop your features there, and then submit a separate pull request for this branch.

The pull request interface can be used whenever you want to submit code from your own repositories to another repository in GitHub. You can use it to merge code in the opposite direction as well, from other people's branches to your own, or even between your own branches. In the last case, since you own the branches, the merges can be approved by yourself immediately.

base repository: SomeProject/Some_Software  base: master       <----  head repository: GITHUB_USERNAME/Some_Software  compare: add_new_functions
base repository: GITHUB_USERNAME/FreeCAD    base: myNewBranch  <----  head repository: FreeCAD/FreeCAD                compare: master
base repository: GITHUB_USERNAME/FreeCAD    base: myNewBranch  <----  head repository: GITHUB_USERNAME/FreeCAD        compare: fix-many-bugs-branch

Das GitHub Repositorium auf dem neuesten Stand halten

Once you've forked FreeCAD, your personal repository exists independently from the original. When the original repository has new commits, GitHub will inform you that your personal repository is behind in number of commits:

This branch is 5 commits behind FreeCAD:master.

In similar way, if you created a development branch with new code, GitHub will inform you that this branch is ahead in number of commits; that is, this branch has changes that haven't been merged into the official FreeCAD repository:

This branch is 3 commits ahead of FreeCAD:master.

While developing, both cases are possible, as your own branch may lack commits made by other developers, but include new commits by you:

This branch is 2 commits ahead, 14 commits behind FreeCAD:master.

When developing code it is recommended that you rebase the branch in which you are currently working, as that will put your branch always ahead of the FreeCAD master code.

As for your original master branch, it will never be automatically updated by GitHub; this is something that you must do yourself. Switch to the master branch, then pull from upstream (which performs a fetch and merge), and then push this updated master branch to your remote origin repository.

git checkout master
git pull upstream master
git push origin master

After this is done, GitHub will let you know that your are synchronized with the upstream repository.

This branch is even with FreeCAD:master.

Now that your master is up to date, you may decide to switch to it, and delete the other branch that you used previously to develop a feature.

git checkout master
git branch -d myNewBranch

To delete the branch in the origin remote repository, you can use the push operation. Normally, you push a local branch; this creates a remote branch with the same name as your local branch.

git push origin myNewBranch

However, if you use the notation local_name:remote_name, the local branch is created in the remote repository under a different name:

git push origin myNewBranch:someRemoteBranch

Daher kannst du den entfernte Fernzweig löschen, indem du einen leeren lokale Zweig schiebst:

git push origin :myNewBranch
git push origin :someRemoteBranch

Now that you only have an up-to-date master, you can create a new branch, and repeat the steps of changing files, committing, pushing, submitting a pull request, merging, and updating.

git checkout master
git checkout -b anotherBranch

If you don't want to delete your already custom branch, you may force updating it to be equal to the updated master; then you can do whatever you want with it, including adding more commits and pushing it to the remote origin repository.

git checkout myNewBranch
git reset --hard master
git push -f origin myNewBranch

Hard resetting a branch like this is usually not needed. In most cases, you want to follow the sequence of creating a new branch, committing changes, pushing those changes, merging the branch, and then deleting the branch.

Erweiterte Git Operationen

Searching

Some handy tools to help you find what you're looking for:

Search filenames

Use git ls-files to search the repository for file that contains a certain string in a filename. The example below will return all instances of the files that contain the 'dxf' in their filenames.

git ls-files *dxf*


Search for a string

Use git grep to search the repository for file that contains a certain string with the files themselves. The example below will return all instances of the files that contain the 'dxf' within each and every file.

git grep dxf


Auflösen von Zusammenführungskonflikten

Merging branches with git merge, or rebasing your branch with git rebase, will occasionally present conflicts, as files may have been modified by another author at the same time. If this happens you should see the changes of both sides, the other author's, and your own, and then make a decision on how to include both sets of changes in the best way possible. This is normally a manual process that cannot be automated; the programmer must understand the code, and decide what code to move, re-write, or drop to solve the conflict.

Sobald ein Konflikt auftritt, kann eine Meldung wie diese erscheinen.

CONFLICT (content): Merge conflict in src/Mod/source_code.py
error: Failed to merge in the changes.
Patch failed at 1234 Some commit message when editing source_code.py

If a specialized diff tool is installed and configured for Git, for example, Gnome's Meld, the conflict can be examined and solved by using the mergetool operation.

git mergetool

The Meld tool normally displays three columns; the two columns on the sides display the two conflicting files, while the column on the middle displays the new code that will be saved and committed finally. Therefore, this central column should be edited in a way that it integrates the code of both side columns. Once the conflict is solved and the new source code (the central column) is saved, the Meld tool can be closed. Then the merge or rebase operation can continue.

git merge --continue
git rebase --continue

For more information on merging and solving conflicts see:

Änderungen untersuchen

Inspect the history of a single file through various commits with the log operation:

git log --patch path

Where path can be any directory or file. Instead of --patch, also the shorthands -p or -u can be used.

Änderungen zwischen zwei Zweigen untersuchen

Inspect the changes between two branches with the log and diff operations with the names of the branches:

git log master..myBranch
git diff master..myBranch

The log operation shows the commits, while diff shows the actual changes in the files.

Dateien und Verzeichnisse zurücksetzen

If you accidentally made modifications to a file or directory, you may want to completely revert these changes, to get the previous state of the source code.

This can be done quickly using the checkout operation:

git checkout path
git checkout .

This will restore the path (a file or a directory) to the state it is at the tip of the branch, discarding changes that haven't been committed. If path is the single dot ., it will restore all files in the current directory.

If you have accidentally added files and directories you can use the clean operation:

git clean -df

This will forcefully delete all files and directories (-df) that are not being tracked by the repository, that is, those that have not been included previously with the add operation.

To completely reset the repository, losing all uncommitted modifications, use the reset operation:

git fetch
git reset --hard FETCH_HEAD

Where FETCH_HEAD is the the tip of the upstream repository. Another commit can also be used.

The revert operation also reverts changes. However, this command does this by adding another commit to the history; in many cases this is not desired.

Pruning old branches

If you have committed many branches to the upstream repository, you may wish to remove these branches from your local system as they have already been merged. The branch in the origin repository online can be deleted immediately after merging. Then you can remove the local references to that branch, using the --prune or prune options to the fetch and remote operations.

git fetch --prune origin
git remote prune origin

Schließlich kannst du die Zweige lokal löschen

git branch -D myBranch

It is also a good practice to do garbage collection after a while, by using the gc operation. This will cleanup unnecessary files, and compress local file revisions, in order to optimize local disk usage of the repository.

git gc

Arbeiten mit Patches

Obwohl Git Ihnen dir erlaubt, verschiedene Code Zweige mit git merge zusammenzuführen (in deinem Computer) oder einer Pull Anfrage (Fernrepositorium) gibt es Zeiten, in denen es wünschenswert sein kann, einen traditionellen "Patch" zu erstellen, der als Anhang per Email verschickt werden kann. Der folgende Arbeitsablauf erklärt, wie dies zu tun ist.

Patches erstellen

  • You should be developing your new code in a secondary branch of your repository, and not in the master branch. So the first step is to make sure you are in the correct branch.
git branch -v
git checkout myBranch
  • Now use git format-patch against the master branch, and use the --stdout option to redirect the result to standard output; then redirect the standard output to a file, which for convenience is created above the source code directory.
git format-patch master --stdout > ../myCode.patch
  • Eine andere Methode ist
git format-patch HEAD^
git format-patch HEAD~1

The number of circumflex carets ^ or the number 1 indicate the number of commits that should be considered, that is, ^^^ or ~3 will create three patches for three commits.

git format-patch HEAD^

This will create a patch or series of patches with the following naming convention

XXXX-commit-message.patch

where XXXX is a number from 0000 to 9999, and the commit message forms the majority of the file name, for example,

0001-fix-ViewProjMatrix-getProjectionMatrix.patch

Patches anwenden

Git can merge patches or diffs. To know more about this process read Applying patches with Git.

Wenn du die Patch Datei bereits in deinem System hast, wende sie einfach an.

git apply myCode.patch

You can use curl to download a patch from a website, and then apply it through git.

curl -O https://some.website.org/code/myCode.patch
git apply myCode.patch

Add .diff or .patch at the end of the URL of a GitHub commit, pull request, or compare view so that the website shows you the plain text view of that page.

You can point curl to a particular commit patch in the repository, and pipe it directly to git to apply the patch.

curl https://github.com/FreeCAD/FreeCAD/commit/c476589652a0f67b544735740e20ff702e8d0621.patch | git apply -

Einen Patch rückgängig machen

When you apply a patch you modify some files. However, these modifications aren't permanent until you commit the changes. Therefore, if you want to revert a patch use the following instructions.

This will revert the changes applied, if you still have access to the original patch file.

git apply -R myCode.patch

Alternatively, this will remove non-committed changes to the branch.

git checkout -f

Stashing git commits

Say that you're working on a branch and you find yourself making some modifications to the source that are out of the scope of your current branch; in other words, those changes would be better in another branch instead of the current one. The git stash command can be used to temporarily store those uncommitted local changes.

git stash

If in the future you want to use those commits, you can "pop" the commits out of the stash, and into your working branch.

git stash pop

Or if you decide that you don't like those saved commits anymore, you may drop the commits from the stash entirely.

git stash drop

You can list multiple stash commits with

git stash list

To learn more, read Useful tricks you might not know about Git stash.

GitHub Anfragen lokal herausfinden

Checkout GitHub pull requests locally


Blaming

Section TBD


Add content from https://forum.freecadweb.org/viewtopic.php?f=23&t=55943&p=481483#p481287

FreeCAD Revisionsnummer

In contrast to subversion, which uses a consecutive number for its revisions, Git produces SHA-1 hash values with every commit. A hash value is a long alphanumeric string that looks like this

9b3ffef570596e184006287434fba54a4b03ccc3

Letzte Revisionsnummer

To find the latest revision number of a particular branch use the rev-list operation with the --count option. Give the name of the branch, remote repository, tag, or a special pointer like HEAD, to indicate the last commit in that particular object.

git rev-list --count master
git rev-list --count HEAD
git rev-list --count origin

Or browse the repository on GitHub, and read the amount of commits reported in the particular branch.

Revisionsnummer eines bestimmten Commit Hashes

Since the hash is an alphanumeric string it is not very useful to decide if a certain commit is older or newer than another hash. To find the revision number of a particular hash, again use the rev-list operation; the input can be the full hash, or a partial hash that is unique, usually the first 7 digits are enough.

git rev-list --count ab1520b872821414c6ce4a15fb85d471ac2a2b03
git rev-list --count 9948ee4

Revisions Hash einer bestimmten Commit Nummer

If we have the commit number, say, 15000, and we want to find the corresponding hash, we need to calculate the number of commits since this point until the last commit (HEAD). First, get the latest commit number.

git rev-list --count HEAD
17465

Then subtract the commit that we want.

17465 - 15000 = 2465

Then use the log operation to show all commits and hashes. The --skip option jumps the difference in commits that we calculated so that we go directly to the hash that we are looking for.

git log --skip=2465
commit 44c2f19e380e76b567d114a6360519d66f7a9e24

Since the log may show you two close commits, confirm it's the right commit number. If it's off by one, just pick the next commit in the sequence (before or after) and check again.

git rev-list --count 44c2f19e38
15000

Revisionsnummer in der FreeCAD Oberfläche

Die Versionsnummer, die mit dem Std Über Werkzeug angezeigt wird, ist in src/Build/Version.h definiert, was zur Kompilierzeit erstellt wird, wenn das Werkzeug cmake ausgeführt wird. Lies Versionsnummer aus der Git Quelle extrahieren für weitere Informationen.

Hinzufügen weiterer (Fern) Repositorien

Mehrere Mitarbeiter des FreeCAD Projekts haben ihre eigenen Git Repositorien, in denen sie ihre Arbeit aufbauen oder neue Ideen ausprobieren, bevor sie bereit sind, in den offiziellen Quellcode aufgenommen zu werden. Vielleicht möchtest du ihre Quellen bekommen, um ihren Code selbst zu testen, wenn sie eine Pull Anfrage stellen.

Verwende den Befehl git fern Befehl, um diese anderen Repositorien hinzuzufügen, so dass du deren Code holen und abrufen kannst.

git checkout master
git remote add OTHER_USER OTHER_URL
git fetch OTHER_USER
git checkout -b OTHER_BRANCH OTHER_USER/OTHER_BRANCH

Lass uns zum Beispiel Bernds Fernrepositorium hinzufügen:

git remote add bernd http://github.com/berndhahnebach/FreeCAD_bhb

Der git holen Befehl lädt die Referenzen von diesem Fernrepositorium herunter.

git fetch bernd

Liste alle Zweige in deinem eigenen Repositorium und die von deinen hinzugefügten Fernen auf. Bernds Zweige werden als Fern/bernd/<Zweigname> angezeigt.

git branch -a

Lass uns nun eine zusammenfassende Liste der letzten 10 Commits von bernds femdev Zweig ansehen.

git log -10 --oneline remotes/bernd/femdev

Jetzt können wir den gewünschte Zweig zur Inspektion herausfinden.

git checkout remotes/bernd/femdev

Dann können wir einen lokalen Zweig erstellen, der auf dem entfernten Zweig basiert. Diesen lokalen Zweig können wir modifizieren und unseren eigenen Code hinzufügen.

git checkout -b local_branch_name /remotes/bernd/femdev

Du kannst den git rebase des neu erhaltenen Zweigs auf den upstream/master Zweig umstellen, um sicherzustellen, dass er den neuesten Code verwendet. Wenn es Konflikte gibt, müssen diese an diesem Punkt gelöst werden.

git pull --rebase upstream master

Der neue Zweig ist bereit, modifiziert und kompiliert zu werden, wie in Kompilieren beschrieben.

Besuche die Entwicklungsabteilung des FreeCAD Forums, um mehr über die Entwicklung zu erfahren.

Weiterführende Literatur