Script di oggetti

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Introduction

Oltre ai tipi di oggetti standard, come le Annotazioni, gli oggetti Mesh e gli oggetti Parte, FreeCAD offre anche la straordinaria possibilità di costruire al 100% oggetti in script di Python, chiamati Python Feature (Caratteristiche Python). Questi oggetti si comportano esattamente come un qualsiasi altro oggetto di FreeCAD, e sono salvati e ripristinati automaticamente con salva/apri il file.

Deve essere conosciuta una loro particolarità: questi oggetti vengono salvati in un file FcStd di FreeCAD con il modulo json di Python. Tale modulo converte un oggetto Python in una stringa, permettendo di aggiungerlo al file salvato. Quando l'oggetto viene caricato, il modulo json utilizza questa stringa per ricreare l'oggetto originale, fornendo l'accesso al codice sorgente da cui ha creato l'oggetto. Questo significa che se si salva un oggetto personalizzato e lo si apre su una macchina in cui non è presente il codice Python che ha generato l'oggetto, l'oggetto non può essere ricreato. Quando si forniscono ad altri utenti questi oggetti, è necessario fornire anche gli script di Python che li hanno creati.

Note: It is possible to pack python code inside a FreeCAD file using json serializing with an App::PropertyPythonObject, but that code can never directly be run, and therefore has little use for our purpose here.

Le Python Features seguono le stesse regole di tutte le altre funzionalità di FreeCAD: sono divise in una parte App e una parte GUI. La parte App, cioè il Document Object (oggetto del documento), definisce la geometria dell'oggetto, mentre la sua parte grafica, cioè il View Provider Object (fornitore della vista dell'oggetto), definisce come l'oggetto viene disegnato sullo schermo. Il View Provider Object, come qualsiasi altro elemento di FreeCAD, è disponibile solo quando si esegue FreeCAD nella sua GUI (interfaccia grafica). Per costruire il proprio oggetto, sono disponibili diversi metodi e proprietà. La Proprietà deve essere una qualsiasi dei tipi di proprietà predefinite che FreeCAD mette a disposizione. Le proprietà disponibili sono quelle che appaiono nella finestra di visualizzazione delle proprietà per consentire all'utente di modificarle. Con questa procedura, gli oggetti FeaturePython sono realmente e totalmente parametrici. E' possibile definire separatamente le proprietà per l'oggetto e per la sua ViewObject (rappresentazione).

Basic example

Esempio base

L'esempio seguente si trova nel file src/Mod/TemplatePyMod/FeaturePython.py, con molti altri esempi:

'''Examples for a feature class and its view provider.'''

import FreeCAD, FreeCADGui
from pivy import coin

class Box:
    def __init__(self, obj):
        '''Add some custom properties to our box feature'''
        obj.addProperty("App::PropertyLength","Length","Box","Length of the box").Length=1.0
        obj.addProperty("App::PropertyLength","Width","Box","Width of the box").Width=1.0
        obj.addProperty("App::PropertyLength","Height","Box", "Height of the box").Height=1.0
        obj.Proxy = self

    def onChanged(self, fp, prop):
        '''Do something when a property has changed'''
        FreeCAD.Console.PrintMessage("Change property: " + str(prop) + "\n")

    def execute(self, fp):
        '''Do something when doing a recomputation, this method is mandatory'''
        FreeCAD.Console.PrintMessage("Recompute Python Box feature\n")

class ViewProviderBox:
    def __init__(self, obj):
        '''Set this object to the proxy object of the actual view provider'''
        obj.addProperty("App::PropertyColor","Color","Box","Color of the box").Color=(1.0,0.0,0.0)
        obj.Proxy = self

    def attach(self, obj):
        '''Setup the scene sub-graph of the view provider, this method is mandatory'''
        self.shaded = coin.SoGroup()
        self.wireframe = coin.SoGroup()
        self.scale = coin.SoScale()
        self.color = coin.SoBaseColor()

        data=coin.SoCube()
        self.shaded.addChild(self.scale)
        self.shaded.addChild(self.color)
        self.shaded.addChild(data)
        obj.addDisplayMode(self.shaded,"Shaded");
        style=coin.SoDrawStyle()
        style.style = coin.SoDrawStyle.LINES
        self.wireframe.addChild(style)
        self.wireframe.addChild(self.scale)
        self.wireframe.addChild(self.color)
        self.wireframe.addChild(data)
        obj.addDisplayMode(self.wireframe,"Wireframe");
        self.onChanged(obj,"Color")

    def updateData(self, fp, prop):
        '''If a property of the handled feature has changed we have the chance to handle this here'''
        # fp is the handled feature, prop is the name of the property that has changed
        l = fp.getPropertyByName("Length")
        w = fp.getPropertyByName("Width")
        h = fp.getPropertyByName("Height")
        self.scale.scaleFactor.setValue(float(l),float(w),float(h))
        pass

    def getDisplayModes(self,obj):
        '''Return a list of display modes.'''
        modes=[]
        modes.append("Shaded")
        modes.append("Wireframe")
        return modes

    def getDefaultDisplayMode(self):
        '''Return the name of the default display mode. It must be defined in getDisplayModes.'''
        return "Shaded"

    def setDisplayMode(self,mode):
        '''Map the display mode defined in attach with those defined in getDisplayModes.\
                Since they have the same names nothing needs to be done. This method is optional'''
        return mode

    def onChanged(self, vp, prop):
        '''Here we can do something when a single property got changed'''
        FreeCAD.Console.PrintMessage("Change property: " + str(prop) + "\n")
        if prop == "Color":
            c = vp.getPropertyByName("Color")
            self.color.rgb.setValue(c[0],c[1],c[2])

    def getIcon(self):
        '''Return the icon in XPM format which will appear in the tree view. This method is\
                optional and if not defined a default icon is shown.'''
        return """
            /* XPM */
            static const char * ViewProviderBox_xpm[] = {
            "16 16 6 1",
            "   c None",
            ".  c #141010",
            "+  c #615BD2",
            "@  c #C39D55",
            "#  c #000000",
            "$  c #57C355",
            "        ........",
            "   ......++..+..",
            "   .@@@@.++..++.",
            "   .@@@@.++..++.",
            "   .@@  .++++++.",
            "  ..@@  .++..++.",
            "###@@@@ .++..++.",
            "##$.@@$#.++++++.",
            "#$#$.$$$........",
            "#$$#######      ",
            "#$$#$$$$$#      ",
            "#$$#$$$$$#      ",
            "#$$#$$$$$#      ",
            " #$#$$$$$#      ",
            "  ##$$$$$#      ",
            "   #######      "};
            """

    def __getstate__(self):
        '''When saving the document this object gets stored using Python's json module.\
                Since we have some un-serializable parts here -- the Coin stuff -- we must define this method\
                to return a tuple of all serializable objects or None.'''
        return None

    def __setstate__(self,state):
        '''When restoring the serialized object from document we have the chance to set some internals here.\
                Since no data were serialized nothing needs to be done here.'''
        return None

def makeBox():
    FreeCAD.newDocument()
    a=FreeCAD.ActiveDocument.addObject("App::FeaturePython","Box")
    Box(a)
    ViewProviderBox(a.ViewObject)

makeBox()

Things to note

If your object relies on being recomputed as soon as it is created, you must do this manually in the __init__ function as it is not called automatically. This example does not require it because the onChanged method of the Box class has the same effect as the execute function, but the examples below rely on being recomputed before anything is displayed in the 3D view. In the examples, this is done manually with ActiveDocument.recompute() but in more complex scenarios you need to decide where to recompute either the whole document or the FeaturePython object.

This example produces a number of exception stack traces in the report view window. This is because the onChanged method of the Box class is called each time a property is added in __init__. When the first one is added, the Width and Height properties don't exist yet and so the attempt to access them fails.

An explanation of __getstate__ and __setstate__ is in the forum thread obj.Proxy.Type is a dict, not a string.

Available methods

See FeaturePython methods for the complete reference.

Available properties

Proprietà disponibili

Le proprietà sono i veri e propri mattoni per la costruzione degli oggetti FeaturePython. Attraverso di esse, l'utente è in grado di interagire e modificare l'oggetto. Dopo aver creato un nuovo oggetto FeaturePython nel documento ( obj=FreeCAD.ActiveDocument.addObject("App::FeaturePython","Box") ), è possibile ottenere un elenco delle proprietà disponibili digitando:

obj.supportedProperties()

Si ottiene l'elenco delle proprietà disponibili:

Quando si aggiungono delle proprietà agli oggetti personalizzati, stare attenti a questo:

  • Non utilizzare i caratteri "<" o ">" nelle descrizioni delle proprietà (questo spezza le parti xml nel file .fcstd)
  • Le proprietà sono memorizzate in ordine alfabetico nel file .fcstd. Se si dispone di una forma (Shape) nelle proprietà, qualsiasi proprietà il cui nome, in ordine alfabetico, viene dopo "Shape", verrà caricato DOPO la forma (Shape), e questo può causare strani comportamenti.

A complete list of property attributes can be seen in the PropertyStandard C++ header file. For instance, if you want to allow the user to enter only a limited range of values (e.g. using PropertyIntegerConstraint), in Python you will assign a tuple containing not only the property value, but also the lower and upper limit as well as the stepsize, as below:

prop = (value, lower, upper, stepsize)

Property Type

Tipi di Proprietà

Di default, le proprietà possono essere aggiornate. È possibile creare delle proprietà di sola lettura, per esempio nel caso si vuole mostrare il risultato di un metodo. È anche possibile nascondere una proprietà. Il tipo di proprietà può essere impostata usando

obj.setEditorMode("MyPropertyName", mode)

dove mode è un indice che può essere impostato:

 0 -- default mode, lettura e scrittura
 1 -- solo lettura
 2 -- nascosto

Gli EditorModes non sono fissati nel file reload di FreeCAD. Questo può essere fatto dalla funzione __setstate__ . Vedere http://forum.freecadweb.org/viewtopic.php?f=18&t=13460&start=10#p108072. Usando setEditorMode le proprietà sono in sola lettura soltanto in PropertyEditor. Esse possono ancora essere modificate da un comando Python. Per renderle davvero in sola lettura le impostazioni devono essere passate direttamente all'interno della funzione addProperty. Per un esempio, vedere http://forum.freecadweb.org/viewtopic.php?f=18&t=13460&start=20#p109709.

Using the direct setting in the addProperty function, you also have more possibilities. In particular, an interesting one is mark a property as an output property. This way FreeCAD won't mark the feature as touched when changing it (so no need to recompute).

Example of output property (see also https://forum.freecadweb.org/viewtopic.php?t=24928):

obj.addProperty("App::PropertyString","MyCustomProperty","","",8)

The property types that can be set at last parameter of the addProperty function are:

 0 -- Prop_None, No special property type
 1 -- Prop_ReadOnly, Property is read-only in the editor
 2 -- Prop_Transient, Property won't be saved to file
 4 -- Prop_Hidden, Property won't appear in the editor
 8 -- Prop_Output, Modified property doesn't touch its parent container
 16 -- Prop_NoRecompute, Modified property doesn't touch its container for recompute

You can find these different property types defined in the source code C++ header for PropertyContainer.

Other more complex example

Altro esempio più complesso

In questo esempio si utilizza il Modulo Parte per creare un ottaedro, quindi si crea la sua rappresentazione Coin con Pivy.

Prima si crea l'oggetto del documento:

import FreeCAD, FreeCADGui, Part
import pivy
from pivy import coin

class Octahedron:
  def __init__(self, obj):
     "Add some custom properties to our box feature"
     obj.addProperty("App::PropertyLength","Length","Octahedron","Length of the octahedron").Length=1.0
     obj.addProperty("App::PropertyLength","Width","Octahedron","Width of the octahedron").Width=1.0
     obj.addProperty("App::PropertyLength","Height","Octahedron", "Height of the octahedron").Height=1.0
     obj.addProperty("Part::PropertyPartShape","Shape","Octahedron", "Shape of the octahedron")
     obj.Proxy = self

  def execute(self, fp):
     # Define six vetices for the shape
     v1 = FreeCAD.Vector(0,0,0)
     v2 = FreeCAD.Vector(fp.Length,0,0)
     v3 = FreeCAD.Vector(0,fp.Width,0)
     v4 = FreeCAD.Vector(fp.Length,fp.Width,0)
     v5 = FreeCAD.Vector(fp.Length/2,fp.Width/2,fp.Height/2)
     v6 = FreeCAD.Vector(fp.Length/2,fp.Width/2,-fp.Height/2)

     # Make the wires/faces
     f1 = self.make_face(v1,v2,v5)
     f2 = self.make_face(v2,v4,v5)
     f3 = self.make_face(v4,v3,v5)
     f4 = self.make_face(v3,v1,v5)
     f5 = self.make_face(v2,v1,v6)
     f6 = self.make_face(v4,v2,v6)
     f7 = self.make_face(v3,v4,v6)
     f8 = self.make_face(v1,v3,v6)
     shell=Part.makeShell([f1,f2,f3,f4,f5,f6,f7,f8])
     solid=Part.makeSolid(shell)
     fp.Shape = solid

  # helper mehod to create the faces
  def make_face(self,v1,v2,v3):
     wire = Part.makePolygon([v1,v2,v3,v1])
     face = Part.Face(wire)
     return face

In seguito si crea il fornitore della vista dell'oggetto (view provider object), responsabile di mostrare l'oggetto nella scena 3D:

class ViewProviderOctahedron:
  def __init__(self, obj):
     "Set this object to the proxy object of the actual view provider"
     obj.addProperty("App::PropertyColor","Color","Octahedron","Color of the octahedron").Color=(1.0,0.0,0.0)
     obj.Proxy = self

  def attach(self, obj):
     "Setup the scene sub-graph of the view provider, this method is mandatory"
     self.shaded = coin.SoGroup()
     self.wireframe = coin.SoGroup()
     self.scale = coin.SoScale()
     self.color = coin.SoBaseColor()

     self.data=coin.SoCoordinate3()
     self.face=coin.SoIndexedLineSet()

     self.shaded.addChild(self.scale)
     self.shaded.addChild(self.color)
     self.shaded.addChild(self.data)
     self.shaded.addChild(self.face)
     obj.addDisplayMode(self.shaded,"Shaded");
     style=coin.SoDrawStyle()
     style.style = coin.SoDrawStyle.LINES
     self.wireframe.addChild(style)
     self.wireframe.addChild(self.scale)
     self.wireframe.addChild(self.color)
     self.wireframe.addChild(self.data)
     self.wireframe.addChild(self.face)
     obj.addDisplayMode(self.wireframe,"Wireframe");
     self.onChanged(obj,"Color")

  def updateData(self, fp, prop):
     "If a property of the handled feature has changed we have the chance to handle this here"
     # fp is the handled feature, prop is the name of the property that has changed
     if prop == "Shape":
        s = fp.getPropertyByName("Shape")
        self.data.point.setNum(6)
        cnt=0
        for i in s.Vertexes:
           self.data.point.set1Value(cnt,i.X,i.Y,i.Z)
           cnt=cnt+1

        self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(0,0)
        self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(1,1)
        self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(2,2)
        self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(3,-1)

        self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(4,1)
        self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(5,3)
        self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(6,2)
        self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(7,-1)

        self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(8,3)
        self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(9,4)
        self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(10,2)
        self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(11,-1)

        self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(12,4)
        self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(13,0)
        self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(14,2)
        self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(15,-1)

        self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(16,1)
        self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(17,0)
        self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(18,5)
        self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(19,-1)

        self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(20,3)
        self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(21,1)
        self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(22,5)
        self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(23,-1)

        self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(24,4)
        self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(25,3)
        self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(26,5)
        self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(27,-1)

        self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(28,0)
        self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(29,4)
        self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(30,5)
        self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(31,-1)

  def getDisplayModes(self,obj):
     "Return a list of display modes."
     modes=[]
     modes.append("Shaded")
     modes.append("Wireframe")
     return modes

  def getDefaultDisplayMode(self):
     "Return the name of the default display mode. It must be defined in getDisplayModes."
     return "Shaded"

  def setDisplayMode(self,mode):
     return mode

  def onChanged(self, vp, prop):
     "Here we can do something when a single property got changed"
     FreeCAD.Console.PrintMessage("Change property: " + str(prop) + "\n")
     if prop == "Color":
        c = vp.getPropertyByName("Color")
        self.color.rgb.setValue(c[0],c[1],c[2])

  def getIcon(self):
     return """
        /* XPM */
        static const char * ViewProviderBox_xpm[] = {
        "16 16 6 1",
        "    c None",
        ".   c #141010",
        "+   c #615BD2",
        "@   c #C39D55",
        "#   c #000000",
        "$   c #57C355",
        "        ........",
        "   ......++..+..",
        "   .@@@@.++..++.",
        "   .@@@@.++..++.",
        "   .@@  .++++++.",
        "  ..@@  .++..++.",
        "###@@@@ .++..++.",
        "##$.@@$#.++++++.",
        "#$#$.$$$........",
        "#$$#######      ",
        "#$$#$$$$$#      ",
        "#$$#$$$$$#      ",
        "#$$#$$$$$#      ",
        " #$#$$$$$#      ",
        "  ##$$$$$#      ",
        "   #######      "};
        """

  def __getstate__(self):
     return None

  def __setstate__(self,state):
     return None

Infine, dopo che l'oggetto e il suo visualizzatore sono definiti, basta solo chiamarli (La classe Octahedron e il codice della classe viewprovider possono essere copiati direttamente nella console Python di FreeCAD)::

FreeCAD.newDocument()
a=FreeCAD.ActiveDocument.addObject("App::FeaturePython","Octahedron")
Octahedron(a)
ViewProviderOctahedron(a.ViewObject)

Making objects selectable

Rendere gli oggetti selezionabili

Se volete rendere il vostro oggetto selezionabile, o almeno una parte di esso, facendo clic su di esso nella finestra, è necessario includere la sua geometria Coin all'interno di un nodo SoFCSelection. Se l'oggetto ha una rappresentazione complessa, con widget, annotazioni, etc, si potrebbe voler includere solo una parte di esso in un SoFCSelection. Tutto quello che compone un SoFCSelection viene costantemente analizzato da FreeCAD per rilevare selezioni/preselezioni, quindi non ha senso sovraccaricarlo con delle scansioni non necessarie. Ecco ciò che si dovrebbe fare per includere un self.face nell'esempio precedente:

Once the parts of the scenegraph that are to be selectable are inside SoFCSelection nodes, you then need to provide two methods to handle the selection path. The selection path can take the form of a string giving the names of each element in the path, or of an array of scenegraph objects. The two methods you provide are getDetailPath, which converts from a string path to an array of scenegraph objects, and getElementPicked, which takes an element which has been clicked on in the scenegraph and returns its string name (note, not its string path).

Here is the molecule example above, adapted to make the elements of the molecule selectable:

class Molecule:
    def __init__(self, obj):
        ''' Add two point properties '''
        obj.addProperty("App::PropertyVector","p1","Line","Start point")
        obj.addProperty("App::PropertyVector","p2","Line","End point").p2=FreeCAD.Vector(5,0,0)

        obj.Proxy = self

    def onChanged(self, fp, prop):
        if prop == "p1" or prop == "p2":
            ''' Print the name of the property that has changed '''
            fp.Shape = Part.makeLine(fp.p1,fp.p2)

    def execute(self, fp):
        ''' Print a short message when doing a recomputation, this method is mandatory '''
        fp.Shape = Part.makeLine(fp.p1,fp.p2)

class ViewProviderMolecule:
    def __init__(self, obj):
        ''' Set this object to the proxy object of the actual view provider '''
        obj.Proxy = self
        self.ViewObject = obj
        sep1=coin.SoSeparator()
        sel1 = coin.SoType.fromName('SoFCSelection').createInstance()
        # sel1.policy.setValue(coin.SoSelection.SHIFT)
        sel1.ref()
        sep1.addChild(sel1)
        self.trl1=coin.SoTranslation()
        sel1.addChild(self.trl1)
        sel1.addChild(coin.SoSphere())
        sep2=coin.SoSeparator()
        sel2 = coin.SoType.fromName('SoFCSelection').createInstance()
        sel2.ref()
        sep2.addChild(sel2)
        self.trl2=coin.SoTranslation()
        sel2.addChild(self.trl2)
        sel2.addChild(coin.SoSphere())
        obj.RootNode.addChild(sep1)
        obj.RootNode.addChild(sep2)
        self.updateData(obj.Object, 'p2')
        self.sel1 = sel1
        self.sel2 = sel2

    def getDetailPath(self, subname, path, append):
        vobj = self.ViewObject
        if append:
            path.append(vobj.RootNode)
            path.append(vobj.SwitchNode)

            mode = vobj.SwitchNode.whichChild.getValue()
            if mode >= 0:
                mode = vobj.SwitchNode.getChild(mode)
                path.append(mode)
                sub = Part.splitSubname(subname)[-1]
                if sub == 'Atom1':
                    path.append(self.sel1)
                elif sub == 'Atom2':
                    path.append(self.sel2)
                else:
                    path.append(mode.getChild(0))
        return True

    def getElementPicked(self, pp):
        path = pp.getPath()
        if path.findNode(self.sel1) >= 0:
            return 'Atom1'
        if path.findNode(self.sel2) >= 0:
            return 'Atom2'
        raise NotImplementedError

    def updateData(self, fp, prop):
        "If a property of the handled feature has changed we have the chance to handle this here"
        # fp is the handled feature, prop is the name of the property that has changed
        if prop == "p1":
            p = fp.getPropertyByName("p1")
            self.trl1.translation=(p.x,p.y,p.z)
        elif prop == "p2":
            p = fp.getPropertyByName("p2")
            self.trl2.translation=(p.x,p.y,p.z)

    def __getstate__(self):
        return None

    def __setstate__(self,state):
        return None

def makeMolecule():
    FreeCAD.newDocument()
    a=FreeCAD.ActiveDocument.addObject("Part::FeaturePython","Molecule")
    Molecule(a)
    ViewProviderMolecule(a.ViewObject)
    FreeCAD.ActiveDocument.recompute()

Working with simple shapes

Lavorare con le forme semplici

Se l'oggetto parametrico produce semplicemente una forma, non è necessario utilizzare un fornitore di vista dell'oggetto (view provider object). La forma viene visualizzata utilizzando la rappresentazione della forma standard di FreeCAD:

import FreeCAD as App
import FreeCADGui
import FreeCAD
import Part
class Line:
    def __init__(self, obj):
        '''"App two point properties" '''
        obj.addProperty("App::PropertyVector","p1","Line","Start point")
        obj.addProperty("App::PropertyVector","p2","Line","End point").p2=FreeCAD.Vector(1,0,0)
        obj.Proxy = self

    def execute(self, fp):
        '''"Print a short message when doing a recomputation, this method is mandatory" '''
        fp.Shape = Part.makeLine(fp.p1,fp.p2)

a=FreeCAD.ActiveDocument.addObject("Part::FeaturePython","Line")
Line(a)
a.ViewObject.Proxy=0 # just set it to something different from None (this assignment is needed to run an internal notification)
FreeCAD.ActiveDocument.recompute()

Lo stesso codice con l'uso di ViewProviderLine

import FreeCAD as App
import FreeCADGui
import FreeCAD
import Part

class Line:
    def __init__(self, obj):
         '''"App two point properties" '''
         obj.addProperty("App::PropertyVector","p1","Line","Start point")
         obj.addProperty("App::PropertyVector","p2","Line","End point").p2=FreeCAD.Vector(100,0,0)
         obj.Proxy = self

    def execute(self, fp):
        '''"Print a short message when doing a recomputation, this method is mandatory" '''
        fp.Shape = Part.makeLine(fp.p1,fp.p2)

class ViewProviderLine:
   def __init__(self, obj):
      ''' Set this object to the proxy object of the actual view provider '''
      obj.Proxy = self

   def getDefaultDisplayMode(self):
      ''' Return the name of the default display mode. It must be defined in getDisplayModes. '''
      return "Flat Lines"

a=FreeCAD.ActiveDocument.addObject("Part::FeaturePython","Line")
Line(a)
ViewProviderLine(a.ViewObject)
App.ActiveDocument.recompute()

Scenegraph Structure

You may have noticed that the examples above construct their scenegraphs in slightly different ways. Some use obj.addDisplayMode(node, "modename") while others use obj.SwitchNode.getChild(x).addChild(y).

Each feature in a FreeCAD document is based the following scenegraph structure:

RootNode
 \- SwitchNode
     \- Shaded
      - Wireframe
      - etc

The SwitchNode displays only one of its children, depending on which display mode is selection in FreeCAD.

The examples which use addDisplayMode are constructing their scenegraphs solely out of coin3d scenegraph elements. Under the covers, addDisplayMode adds a new child to the SwitchNode; the name of that node will match the display mode it was passed.

The examples which use SwitchNode.getChild(x).addChild also construct part of their geometry using functions from the Part workbench, such as fp.Shape = Part.makeLine(fp.p1,fp.p2). This constructs the different display mode scenegraphs under the SwitchNode; when we later come to add coin3d elements to the scenegraph, we need to add them to the existing display mode scenegraphs using addChild rather than creating a new child of the SwitchNode.

When using addDisplayMode() to add geometry to the scenegraph, each display mode should have its own node which is passed to addDisplayMode(); don't reuse the same node for this. Doing so will confuse the selection mechanism. It's okay if each display mode's node has the same geometry nodes added below it, just the root of each display mode needs to be distinct.

Here is the above molecule example, adapted to be drawn only with Coin3D scenegraph objects instead of using objects from the Part workbench:

import Part
from pivy import coin

class Molecule:
    def __init__(self, obj):
        ''' Add two point properties '''
        obj.addProperty("App::PropertyVector","p1","Line","Start point")
        obj.addProperty("App::PropertyVector","p2","Line","End point").p2=FreeCAD.Vector(5,0,0)

        obj.Proxy = self

    def onChanged(self, fp, prop):
        pass

    def execute(self, fp):
        ''' Print a short message when doing a recomputation, this method is mandatory '''
        pass

class ViewProviderMolecule:
    def __init__(self, obj):
        ''' Set this object to the proxy object of the actual view provider '''
        self.constructed = False
        obj.Proxy = self
        self.ViewObject = obj

    def attach(self, obj):
        material = coin.SoMaterial()
        material.diffuseColor = (1.0, 0.0, 0.0)
        material.emissiveColor = (1.0, 0.0, 0.0)
        drawStyle = coin.SoDrawStyle()
        drawStyle.pointSize.setValue(10)
        drawStyle.style = coin.SoDrawStyle.LINES
        wireframe = coin.SoGroup()
        shaded = coin.SoGroup()
        self.wireframe = wireframe
        self.shaded = shaded

        self.coords = coin.SoCoordinate3()
        self.coords.point.setValues(0, 2, [FreeCAD.Vector(0, 0, 0), FreeCAD.Vector(1, 0, 0)])
        wireframe += self.coords
        wireframe += drawStyle
        wireframe += material
        shaded += self.coords
        shaded += drawStyle
        shaded += material

        g = coin.SoGroup()
        sel1 = coin.SoType.fromName('SoFCSelection').createInstance()
        sel1.style = 'EMISSIVE_DIFFUSE'
        p1 = coin.SoType.fromName('SoIndexedPointSet').createInstance()
        p1.coordIndex.set1Value(0, 0)
        sel1 += p1
        g += sel1
        wireframe += g
        shaded += g

        g = coin.SoGroup()
        sel2 = coin.SoType.fromName('SoFCSelection').createInstance()
        sel2.style = 'EMISSIVE_DIFFUSE'
        p2 = coin.SoType.fromName('SoIndexedPointSet').createInstance()
        p2.coordIndex.set1Value(0, 1)
        sel2 += p2
        g += sel2
        wireframe += g
        shaded += g

        g = coin.SoGroup()
        sel3 = coin.SoType.fromName('SoFCSelection').createInstance()
        sel3.style = 'EMISSIVE_DIFFUSE'
        p3 = coin.SoType.fromName('SoIndexedLineSet').createInstance()
        p3.coordIndex.setValues(0, 2, [0, 1])
        sel3 += p3
        g += sel3
        wireframe += g
        shaded += g

        obj.addDisplayMode(wireframe, 'Wireframe')
        obj.addDisplayMode(shaded, 'Shaded')

        self.sel1 = sel1
        self.sel2 = sel2
        self.sel3 = sel3
        self.constructed = True
        self.updateData(obj.Object, 'p2')

    def getDetailPath(self, subname, path, append):
        vobj = self.ViewObject
        if append:
            path.append(vobj.RootNode)
            path.append(vobj.SwitchNode)

            mode = vobj.SwitchNode.whichChild.getValue()
            FreeCAD.Console.PrintWarning("getDetailPath: mode {} is active\n".format(mode))
            if mode >= 0:
                mode = vobj.SwitchNode.getChild(mode)
                path.append(mode)
                sub = Part.splitSubname(subname)[-1]
                print(sub)
                if sub == 'Atom1':
                    path.append(self.sel1)
                elif sub == 'Atom2':
                    path.append(self.sel2)
                elif sub == 'Line':
                    path.append(self.sel3)
                else:
                    path.append(mode.getChild(0))
        return True

    def getElementPicked(self, pp):
        path = pp.getPath()
        if path.findNode(self.sel1) >= 0:
            return 'Atom1'
        if path.findNode(self.sel2) >= 0:
            return 'Atom2'
        if path.findNode(self.sel3) >= 0:
            return 'Line'
        raise NotImplementedError

    def updateData(self, fp, prop):
        "If a property of the handled feature has changed we have the chance to handle this here"
        # fp is the handled feature, prop is the name of the property that has changed
        if not self.constructed:
            return
        if prop == "p1":
            p = fp.getPropertyByName("p1")
            self.coords.point.set1Value(0, p)
        elif prop == "p2":
            p = fp.getPropertyByName("p2")
            self.coords.point.set1Value(1, p)

    def getDisplayModes(self, obj):
        return ['Wireframe', 'Shaded']

    def getDefaultDisplayMode(self):
        return 'Shaded'

    def setDisplayMode(self, mode):
        return mode

    def __getstate__(self):
        return None

    def __setstate__(self,state):
        return None

def makeMolecule():
    FreeCAD.newDocument()
    a=FreeCAD.ActiveDocument.addObject("App::FeaturePython","Molecule")
    Molecule(a)
    b=ViewProviderMolecule(a.ViewObject)
    a.touch()
    FreeCAD.ActiveDocument.recompute()
    return a,b

a,b = makeMolecule()

Part Design scripted objects

When making scripted objects in Part Design the process is similar to the scripted objects discussed above, but with a few additional considerations. We must handle 2 shape properties, one for the shape we see in the 3D view and another for the shape used by the pattern tools, such as polar pattern features. The object shapes also needs to be fused to any existing material already in the Body (or cut from it in the case of Subtractive features). And we must account for the placement and attachment of our objects a little bit differently.

Part Design scripted solid object features should be based on either PartDesign::FeaturePython, PartDesign::FeatureAdditivePython, or PartDesign::FeatureSubtractivePython rather than Part::FeaturePython. Only the Additive and Subtractive variants can be used in pattern features, and if based on Part::FeaturePython when the user drops the object into a Part Design Body it becomes a BaseFeature rather than being treated by the Body as a native Part Design object. Note: all of these are expected to be solids, so if you are making a non-solid feature it should be based on Part::FeaturePython or else the next feature in the tree will attempt to fuse to as a solid and it will fail.

Here is a simple example of making a Tube primitive, similar to the Tube primitive in Part Workbench except this one will be a Part Design solid feature object. For this we will 2 separate files: pdtube.FCMacro and pdtube.py. The .FCMacro file will be executed by the user to create the object. The .py file will hold the class definitions, imported by the .FCMacro. The reason for doing it this way is to maintain the parametric nature of the object after restarting FreeCAD and opening a document containing one of our Tubes.

First, the class definition file:

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
#classes should go in pdtube.py
import FreeCAD, FreeCADGui, Part
class PDTube:
    def __init__(self,obj):
        obj.addProperty("App::PropertyLength","Radius1","Tube","Radius1").Radius1 = 5
        obj.addProperty("App::PropertyLength","Radius2","Tube","Radius2").Radius2 = 10
        obj.addProperty("App::PropertyLength","Height","Tube","Height of tube").Height = 10
        self.makeAttachable(obj)
        obj.Proxy = self

    def makeAttachable(self, obj):

        if int(FreeCAD.Version()[1]) >= 19:
            obj.addExtension('Part::AttachExtensionPython')
        else:
            obj.addExtension('Part::AttachExtensionPython', obj)

        obj.setEditorMode('Placement', 0) #non-readonly non-hidden

    def execute(self,fp):
        outer_cylinder = Part.makeCylinder(fp.Radius2, fp.Height)
        inner_cylinder = Part.makeCylinder(fp.Radius1, fp.Height)
        if fp.Radius1 == fp.Radius2: #just make cylinder
            tube_shape = outer_cylinder
        elif fp.Radius1 < fp.Radius2:
            tube_shape = outer_cylinder.cut(inner_cylinder)
        else: #invert rather than error out
            tube_shape = inner_cylinder.cut(outer_cylinder)

        if not hasattr(fp, "positionBySupport"):
            self.makeAttachable(fp)
        fp.positionBySupport()
        tube_shape.Placement = fp.Placement

        #BaseFeature (shape property of type Part::PropertyPartShape) is provided for us
        #with the PartDesign::FeaturePython and related classes, but it might be empty
        #if our object is the first object in the tree.  it's a good idea to check
        #for its existence in case we want to make type Part::FeaturePython, which won't have it

        if hasattr(fp, "BaseFeature") and fp.BaseFeature != None:
            if "Subtractive" in fp.TypeId:
                full_shape = fp.BaseFeature.Shape.cut(tube_shape)
            else:
                full_shape = fp.BaseFeature.Shape.fuse(tube_shape)
            full_shape.transformShape(fp.Placement.inverse().toMatrix(), True) #borrowed from gears workbench
            fp.Shape = full_shape
        else:
            fp.Shape = tube_shape
        if hasattr(fp,"AddSubShape"): #PartDesign::FeatureAdditivePython and
                                      #PartDesign::FeatureSubtractivePython have this
                                      #property but PartDesign::FeaturePython does not
                                      #It is the shape used for copying in pattern features
                                      #for example in making a polar pattern
            tube_shape.transformShape(fp.Placement.inverse().toMatrix(), True)
            fp.AddSubShape = tube_shape

class PDTubeVP:
    def __init__(self, obj):
        '''Set this object to the proxy object of the actual view provider'''
        obj.Proxy = self

    def attach(self,vobj):
        self.vobj = vobj

    def updateData(self, fp, prop):
        '''If a property of the handled feature has changed we have the chance to handle this here'''
        pass

    def getDisplayModes(self,obj):
        '''Return a list of display modes.'''
        modes=[]
        modes.append("Flat Lines")
        modes.append("Shaded")
        modes.append("Wireframe")
        return modes

    def getDefaultDisplayMode(self):
        '''Return the name of the default display mode. It must be defined in getDisplayModes.'''
        return "Flat Lines"

    def setDisplayMode(self,mode):
        '''Map the display mode defined in attach with those defined in getDisplayModes.\
                Since they have the same names nothing needs to be done. This method is optional'''
        return mode

    def onChanged(self, vp, prop):
        '''Here we can do something when a single property got changed'''
        #FreeCAD.Console.PrintMessage("Change property: " + str(prop) + "\n")
        pass

    def getIcon(self):
        '''Return the icon in XPM format which will appear in the tree view. This method is\
                optional and if not defined a default icon is shown.'''
        return """
            /* XPM */
            static const char * ViewProviderBox_xpm[] = {
            "16 16 6 1",
            "   c None",
            ".  c #141010",
            "+  c #615BD2",
            "@  c #C39D55",
            "#  c #000000",
            "$  c #57C355",
            "        ........",
            "   ......++..+..",
            "   .@@@@.++..++.",
            "   .@@@@.++..++.",
            "   .@@  .++++++.",
            "  ..@@  .++..++.",
            "###@@@@ .++..++.",
            "##$.@@$#.++++++.",
            "#$#$.$$$........",
            "#$$#######      ",
            "#$$#$$$$$#      ",
            "#$$#$$$$$#      ",
            "#$$#$$$$$#      ",
            " #$#$$$$$#      ",
            "  ##$$$$$#      ",
            "   #######      "};
            """

    def __getstate__(self):
        '''When saving the document this object gets stored using Python's json module.\
                Since we have some un-serializable parts here -- the Coin stuff -- we must define this method\
                to return a tuple of all serializable objects or None.'''
        return None

    def __setstate__(self,state):
        '''When restoring the serialized object from document we have the chance to set some internals here.\
                Since no data were serialized nothing needs to be done here.'''
        return None

And now the macro file to create the object:

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

#pdtube.FCMacro
import pdtube
#above line needed if the class definitions above are place in another file: PDTube.py
#this is needed if the tube object is to remain parametric after restarting FreeCAD and loading
#a document containing the object

body = FreeCADGui.ActiveDocument.ActiveView.getActiveObject("pdbody")
if not body:
    FreeCAD.Console.PrintError("No active body.\n")
else:
    from PySide import QtGui
    window = FreeCADGui.getMainWindow()
    items = ["Additive","Subtractive","Neither additive nor subtractive"]
    item,ok =QtGui.QInputDialog.getItem(window,"Select tube type","Select whether you want additive, subtractive, or neither:",items,0,False)
    if ok:
        if item == items[0]:
            className = "PartDesign::FeatureAdditivePython"
        elif item == items[1]:
            className = "PartDesign::FeatureSubtractivePython"
        else:
            className = "PartDesign::FeaturePython" #not usable in pattern features, such as polar pattern

        tube = FreeCAD.ActiveDocument.addObject(className,"Tube")
        pdtube.PDTube(tube)
        pdtube.PDTubeVP(tube.ViewObject)
        body.addObject(tube) #optionally we can also use body.insertObject() for placing at particular place in tree

Ulteriori informazioni

Ci sono alcune discussioni nel forum molto interessanti su script di oggetti:

Additional pages:

Interesting forum threads about scripted objects:

Oltre agli esempi presentati qui dare un'occhiata al codice sorgente di FreeCAD src/Mod/TemplatePyMod/FeaturePython.py per ulteriori esempi.


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