Scripted objects/cn

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除了标准的对象类型,如批注,网格和部件对象,,FreeCAD还提供了惊人的建立100% Python 脚本对象,被称为 Python 功能。这些对象的行为方式同任何其他FreeCAD对象完全一样可以保存和文件保存/载入自动恢复。

One particularity must be understood, those objects are saved in FreeCAD FcStd files with python's json module. That module turns a python object as a string, allowing it to be added to the saved file. On load, the json module uses that string to recreate the original object, provided it has access to the source code that created the object. This means that if you save such a custom object and open it on a machine where the python code that generated the object is not present, the object won't be recreated. If you distribute such objects to others, you will need to distribute the python script that created it together.

Python Features follow the same rule as all FreeCAD features: they are separated into App and GUI parts. The app part, the Document Object, defines the geometry of our object, while its GUI part, the View Provider Object, defines how the object will be drawn on screen. The View Provider Object, as any other FreeCAD feature, is only available when you run FreeCAD in its own GUI. There are several properties and methods available to build your object. Properties must be of any of the predefined properties types that FreeCAD offers, and will appear in the property view window, so they can be edited by the user. This way, FeaturePython objects are truly and totally parametric. you can define properties for the Object and its ViewObject separately.

Hint: In former versions we used Python's cPickle module. However, this module executes arbitrary code and thus causes a security problem. Thus, we moved to Python's json module.

简单例子

The following sample can be found in the src/Mod/TemplatePyMod/FeaturePython.py file, together with several other examples:

"Examples for a feature class and its view provider."

import FreeCAD, FreeCADGui
from pivy import coin

class Box:
	def __init__(self, obj):
		"Add some custom properties to our box feature"
		obj.addProperty("App::PropertyLength","Length","Box","Length of the box").Length=1.0
		obj.addProperty("App::PropertyLength","Width","Box","Width of the box").Width=1.0
		obj.addProperty("App::PropertyLength","Height","Box", "Height of the box").Height=1.0
		obj.Proxy = self
	
	def onChanged(self, fp, prop):
		"Do something when a property has changed"
		FreeCAD.Console.PrintMessage("Change property: " + str(prop) + "\n")
 
	def execute(self, fp):
		"Do something when doing a recomputation, this method is mandatory"
		FreeCAD.Console.PrintMessage("Recompute Python Box feature\n")
 
class ViewProviderBox:
	def __init__(self, obj):
		"Set this object to the proxy object of the actual view provider"
		obj.addProperty("App::PropertyColor","Color","Box","Color of the box").Color=(1.0,0.0,0.0)
		obj.Proxy = self
 
	def attach(self, obj):
		"Setup the scene sub-graph of the view provider, this method is mandatory"
		self.shaded = coin.SoGroup()
		self.wireframe = coin.SoGroup()
		self.scale = coin.SoScale()
		self.color = coin.SoBaseColor()
 		
		data=coin.SoCube()
		self.shaded.addChild(self.scale)
		self.shaded.addChild(self.color)
		self.shaded.addChild(data)
		obj.addDisplayMode(self.shaded,"Shaded");
		style=coin.SoDrawStyle()
		style.style = coin.SoDrawStyle.LINES
		self.wireframe.addChild(style)
		self.wireframe.addChild(self.scale)
		self.wireframe.addChild(self.color)
		self.wireframe.addChild(data)
		obj.addDisplayMode(self.wireframe,"Wireframe");
		self.onChanged(obj,"Color")
 
	def updateData(self, fp, prop):
		"If a property of the handled feature has changed we have the chance to handle this here"
		# fp is the handled feature, prop is the name of the property that has changed
		l = fp.getPropertyByName("Length")
		w = fp.getPropertyByName("Width")
		h = fp.getPropertyByName("Height")
		self.scale.scaleFactor.setValue(l,w,h)
		pass
 
	def getDisplayModes(self,obj):
		"Return a list of display modes."
		modes=[]
		modes.append("Shaded")
		modes.append("Wireframe")
		return modes
 
	def getDefaultDisplayMode(self):
		"Return the name of the default display mode. It must be defined in getDisplayModes."
		return "Shaded"
 
	def setDisplayMode(self,mode):
		"Map the display mode defined in attach with those defined in getDisplayModes.\
                Since they have the same names nothing needs to be done. This method is optional"
		return mode
 
	def onChanged(self, vp, prop):
		"Here we can do something when a single property got changed"
		FreeCAD.Console.PrintMessage("Change property: " + str(prop) + "\n")
		if prop == "Color":
			c = vp.getPropertyByName("Color")
			self.color.rgb.setValue(c[0],c[1],c[2])
 
	def getIcon(self):
		"Return the icon in XPM format which will appear in the tree view. This method is\
                optional and if not defined a default icon is shown."
		return """
			/* XPM */
			static const char * ViewProviderBox_xpm[] = {
			"16 16 6 1",
			" 	c None",
			".	c #141010",
			"+	c #615BD2",
			"@	c #C39D55",
			"#	c #000000",
			"$	c #57C355",
			"        ........",
			"   ......++..+..",
			"   .@@@@.++..++.",
			"   .@@@@.++..++.",
			"   .@@  .++++++.",
			"  ..@@  .++..++.",
			"###@@@@ .++..++.",
			"##$.@@$#.++++++.",
			"#$#$.$$$........",
			"#$$#######      ",
			"#$$#$$$$$#      ",
			"#$$#$$$$$#      ",
			"#$$#$$$$$#      ",
			" #$#$$$$$#      ",
			"  ##$$$$$#      ",
			"   #######      "};
			"""
 
	def __getstate__(self):
		"When saving the document this object gets stored using Python's json module.\
                Since we have some un-serializable parts here -- the Coin stuff -- we must define this method\
                to return a tuple of all serializable objects or None."
		return None
 
	def __setstate__(self,state):
		"When restoring the serialized object from document we have the chance to set some internals here.\
                Since no data were serialized nothing needs to be done here."
		return None
 
 
def makeBox():
	FreeCAD.newDocument()
	a=FreeCAD.ActiveDocument.addObject("App::FeaturePython","Box")
	Box(a)
 	ViewProviderBox(a.ViewObject)

可用属性

Properties are the true building stones of FeaturePython objects. Through them, the user will be able to interact and modify your object. After creating a new FeaturePython object in your document ( a=FreeCAD.ActiveDocument.addObject("App::FeaturePython","Box") ), you can get a list of the available properties by issuing:

a.supportedProperties()

You will get a list of available properties:

App::PropertyBool
App::PropertyFloat
App::PropertyFloatList
App::PropertyFloatConstraint
App::PropertyAngle
App::PropertyDistance
App::PropertyInteger
App::PropertyIntegerConstraint
App::PropertyPercent
App::PropertyEnumeration
App::PropertyIntegerList
App::PropertyString
App::PropertyStringList
App::PropertyLink
App::PropertyLinkList
App::PropertyMatrix
App::PropertyVector
App::PropertyVectorList
App::PropertyPlacement
App::PropertyPlacementLink
App::PropertyColor
App::PropertyColorList
App::PropertyMaterial
App::PropertyPath
App::PropertyFile
App::PropertyFileIncluded
Part::PropertyPartShape
Part::PropertyFilletContour
Part::PropertyCircle

When adding properties to your custom objects, take care of this:

  • Do not use characters "<" or ">" in the properties descriptions (that would break the xml pieces in the .fcstd file)
  • Properties are stored alphabetically in a .fcstd file. If you have a shape in your properties, any property whose name comes after "Shape" in alphabetic order, will be loaded AFTER the shape, which can cause strange behaviours.

其它复杂例子

This example makes use of the Part Module to create an octahedron, then creates its coin representation with pivy.

First is the Document object itself:

import FreeCAD, FreeCADGui, Part

   class Octahedron:
      def __init__(self, obj):
         "Add some custom properties to our box feature"
         obj.addProperty("App::PropertyLength","Length","Octahedron","Length of the octahedron").Length=1.0
         obj.addProperty("App::PropertyLength","Width","Octahedron","Width of the octahedron").Width=1.0
         obj.addProperty("App::PropertyLength","Height","Octahedron", "Height of the octahedron").Height=1.0
         obj.addProperty("Part::PropertyPartShape","Shape","Octahedron", "Shape of the octahedron")
         obj.Proxy = self

      def execute(self, fp):
         # Define six vetices for the shape
         v1 = FreeCAD.Vector(0,0,0)
         v2 = FreeCAD.Vector(fp.Length,0,0)
         v3 = FreeCAD.Vector(0,fp.Width,0)
         v4 = FreeCAD.Vector(fp.Length,fp.Width,0)
         v5 = FreeCAD.Vector(fp.Length/2,fp.Width/2,fp.Height/2)
         v6 = FreeCAD.Vector(fp.Length/2,fp.Width/2,-fp.Height/2)
         
         # Make the wires/faces
         f1 = self.make_face(v1,v2,v5)
         f2 = self.make_face(v2,v4,v5)
         f3 = self.make_face(v4,v3,v5)
         f4 = self.make_face(v3,v1,v5)
         f5 = self.make_face(v2,v1,v6)
         f6 = self.make_face(v4,v2,v6)
         f7 = self.make_face(v3,v4,v6)
         f8 = self.make_face(v1,v3,v6)
         shell=Part.makeShell([f1,f2,f3,f4,f5,f6,f7,f8])
         solid=Part.makeSolid(shell)
         fp.Shape = solid

      # helper mehod to create the faces
      def make_face(self,v1,v2,v3):
         wire = Part.makePolygon([v1,v2,v3,v1])
         face = Part.Face(wire)
         return face

Then, we have the view provider object, responsible for showing the object in the 3D scene:

   class ViewProviderOctahedron:
      def __init__(self, obj):
         "Set this object to the proxy object of the actual view provider"
         obj.addProperty("App::PropertyColor","Color","Octahedron","Color of the octahedron").Color=(1.0,0.0,0.0)
         obj.Proxy = self

      def attach(self, obj):
         "Setup the scene sub-graph of the view provider, this method is mandatory"
         self.shaded = coin.SoGroup()
         self.wireframe = coin.SoGroup()
         self.scale = coin.SoScale()
         self.color = coin.SoBaseColor()

         self.data=coin.SoCoordinate3()
         self.face=coin.SoIndexedLineSet()

         self.shaded.addChild(self.scale)
         self.shaded.addChild(self.color)
         self.shaded.addChild(self.data)
         self.shaded.addChild(self.face)
         obj.addDisplayMode(self.shaded,"Shaded");
         style=coin.SoDrawStyle()
         style.style = coin.SoDrawStyle.LINES
         self.wireframe.addChild(style)
         self.wireframe.addChild(self.scale)
         self.wireframe.addChild(self.color)
         self.wireframe.addChild(self.data)
         self.wireframe.addChild(self.face)
         obj.addDisplayMode(self.wireframe,"Wireframe");
         self.onChanged(obj,"Color")

      def updateData(self, fp, prop):
         "If a property of the handled feature has changed we have the chance to handle this here"
         # fp is the handled feature, prop is the name of the property that has changed
         if prop == "Shape":
            s = fp.getPropertyByName("Shape")
            self.data.point.setNum(6)
            cnt=0
            for i in s.Vertexes:
               self.data.point.set1Value(cnt,i.X,i.Y,i.Z)
               cnt=cnt+1
            
            self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(0,0)
            self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(1,1)
            self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(2,2)
            self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(3,-1)

            self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(4,1)
            self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(5,3)
            self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(6,2)
            self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(7,-1)

            self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(8,3)
            self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(9,4)
            self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(10,2)
            self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(11,-1)

            self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(12,4)
            self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(13,0)
            self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(14,2)
            self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(15,-1)

            self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(16,1)
            self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(17,0)
            self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(18,5)
            self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(19,-1)

            self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(20,3)
            self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(21,1)
            self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(22,5)
            self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(23,-1)

            self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(24,4)
            self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(25,3)
            self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(26,5)
            self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(27,-1)

            self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(28,0)
            self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(29,4)
            self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(30,5)
            self.face.coordIndex.set1Value(31,-1)

      def getDisplayModes(self,obj):
         "Return a list of display modes."
         modes=[]
         modes.append("Shaded")
         modes.append("Wireframe")
         return modes

      def getDefaultDisplayMode(self):
         "Return the name of the default display mode. It must be defined in getDisplayModes."
         return "Shaded"

      def setDisplayMode(self,mode):
         return mode

      def onChanged(self, vp, prop):
         "Here we can do something when a single property got changed"
         FreeCAD.Console.PrintMessage("Change property: " + str(prop) + "\n")
         if prop == "Color":
            c = vp.getPropertyByName("Color")
            self.color.rgb.setValue(c[0],c[1],c[2])

      def getIcon(self):
         return """
            /* XPM */
            static const char * ViewProviderBox_xpm[] = {
            "16 16 6 1",
            "    c None",
            ".   c #141010",
            "+   c #615BD2",
            "@   c #C39D55",
            "#   c #000000",
            "$   c #57C355",
            "        ........",
            "   ......++..+..",
            "   .@@@@.++..++.",
            "   .@@@@.++..++.",
            "   .@@  .++++++.",
            "  ..@@  .++..++.",
            "###@@@@ .++..++.",
            "##$.@@$#.++++++.",
            "#$#$.$$$........",
            "#$$#######      ",
            "#$$#$$$$$#      ",
            "#$$#$$$$$#      ",
            "#$$#$$$$$#      ",
            " #$#$$$$$#      ",
            "  ##$$$$$#      ",
            "   #######      "};
            """

      def __getstate__(self):
         return None

      def __setstate__(self,state):
         return None

Finally, once our object and its viewobject are defined, we just need to call them:

      FreeCAD.newDocument()
      a=FreeCAD.ActiveDocument.addObject("App::FeaturePython","Octahedron")
      Octahedron(a)
      ViewProviderOctahedron(a.ViewObject)

选中对象

If you want to make your object selectable, or at least part of it, by clicking on it in the viewport, you must include its coin geometry inside a SoFCSelection node. If your object has complex representation, with widgets, annotations, etc, you might want to include only a part of it in a SoFCSelection. Everything that is a SoFCSelection is constantly scanned by FreeCAD to detect selection/preselection, so it makes sense try not to overload it with unneeded scanning. This is what you would do to include a self.face from the example above:

selectionNode = coin.SoType.fromName("SoFCSelection").createInstance()
selectionNode.documentName.setValue(FreeCAD.ActiveDocument.Name)
selectionNode.objectName.setValue(obj.Object.Name) # here obj is the ViewObject, we need its associated App Object
selectionNode.subElementName.setValue("Face")
selectNode.addChild(self.face)
...
self.shaded.addChild(selectionNode)
self.wireframe.addChild(selectionNode)

Simply, you create a SoFCSelection node, then you add your geometry nodes to it, then you add it to your main node, instead of adding your geometry nodes directly.

简单形体

If your parametric object simply outputs a shape, you don't need to use a view provider object. The shape will be displayed using FreeCAD's standard shape representation:

class Line:
    def __init__(self, obj):
        "App two point properties" 
        obj.addProperty("App::PropertyVector","p1","Line","Start point")
        obj.addProperty("App::PropertyVector","p2","Line","End point").p2=FreeCAD.Vector(1,0,0)
        obj.Proxy = self

    def execute(self, fp):
        "Print a short message when doing a recomputation, this method is mandatory" 
        fp.Shape = Part.makeLine(fp.p1,fp.p2)

a=FreeCAD.ActiveDocument.addObject("Part::FeaturePython","Line")
Line(a)
a.ViewObject.Proxy=0 # just set it to something different from None (this assignment is needed to run an internal notification)
FreeCAD.ActiveDocument.recompute()
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