安装

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选择你操作系统

FreeCAD 是一个真正的跨平台应用程序,基于世界知名的 Qt 框架之上。这意味着 FreeCAD 外观和行为与在 Windows, Linux 和 Mac 上是一致的。然而,安装过程在每个操作系统上是有所不同的。在下面选择你的操作系统以获得更多细节关于如何安装 FreeCAD。

'Windows' 'Linux' 'Mac'
在 Windows 上安装 在 Linux/Unix 上安装 在 Mac 上安装

安装额外的内容

脱机文档不随所有安装程序一起发送, 并且可用作单独的包。请参阅此处 安装帮助文档

除了默认捆绑在 FreeCAD 的 工作台 以外,还有由社区成员制作的一堆很有用额外工作台和模块在网络持续增长。几个进行中的成果是收集它们和令它们方便地展示给你。下面是它们的列表。

因为这些工作台不是官方 FreeCAD 包并且没有被 FreeCAD 团队直接支持,所以你在安装它们之前应该先阅读每个扩展页上面的信息,以确定你知道你在安装些什么。并且,BUG 报告和特性请求应该直接写于每个扩展页上。

FreeCAD 扩展仓库

及至FreeCAD 0.17版时,可直接用Tools菜单来管理插件,因此便无需按此前提到的安装宏的方式来管理插件。

通过 git submodules 系统(允许保证不变的更新内容)收集了有用的工作台。这个 FreeCAD 扩展仓库在 https://github.com/FreeCAD/FreeCAD-addons。这个仓库实现了一个可以从 FreeCAD 中启动的宏安装器,这样就能自动列举、下载和安装任何扩展。安装宏安装器:

在FreeCAD 0.17及其更高版本上请用插件管理器来安装扩展插件。

  1. 右键点击 addons_installer.FCMacro 并且选择另存为...
  2. 放置下载后的宏到你的 FreeCAD 宏目录。FreeCAD 宏目录位置指示在菜单 Macros -> Macros -> User macros location

Macro installer 01.jpg

  1. 重启 FreeCAD。扩展安装器现在会展示在菜单 Macro -> Macros 中并且能通过选择它并点击 Execute 按钮操作:

Macro installer 02.jpg

插件加载器扩展

这个插件加载器是一个用于安装和管理 FreeCAD 额外内容更精细的方式。通过以上的方法安装它,或者跟随下面的指令 pluginloader 页

pluginloader扩展插件已被插件管理器取代。

手工安装

全部由 python 编程的外部工作台(它们现在几乎都在编写时使用此方式)能随时很容易地手工安装,简单地下载它们(通常只需要在每个 github 扩展页上点击 **Download ZIP** 按钮),并且放置它们到你的用户 FreeCAD/Mod 目录(或者宏目录,如果他们是宏)。参考每个扩展页的资料以获得更完整的步骤说明。

使用 32位系统 和 FreeCAD 0.16.6706 版本的用户说明

安装之后,在以下情况,额外的工作区可能不会出现:

FreeCAD支持的外部软件

FreeCAD支持大量开包即用的外部软件。这就意味着:您只需简单地安装想用的软件,在下次重新开启FreeCAD后便可自动在其中使用此软件了。此过程中无需对其进行重新编译。本节的目标便是提供所有此类软件包的列表,同时给出在FreeCAD中使用这些软件的有关信息以及它们的获取方式。

FreeCAD supports a whole lot of external software packages out of the box. This means, you just need to install the software and it will be automatically available, the next time you start it. There's no need to recompile it. This section aims to provide a list of all such software packages, together with some information of where it's used in FreeCAD and where you can grab them.

Support

GraphViz

GraphViz是一款开源的图形可视化(graph visualization)软件。在FreeCAD中可通过Tools → Dependency Graph...来令它生成依赖图。它的主页位于 https://www.graphviz.org

GraphViz is an open source graph visualization software. In FreeCAD it is used to generate dependency graphs through Tools → Dependency Graph. Its homepage is at https://www.graphviz.org

OpenCAMLib

一种提供计算机辅助制造(computer aided manufacturing (CAM))算法的开源库。在FreeCAD中的路径工作台(Path Workbench)会用到它。OpenCAMLib的首页位于 http://www.anderswallin.net/CAM/

OpenCAMLib is an open source library of computer aided manufacturing (CAM) algorithms and used in the Path Workbench. See its page for installation instructions.

OpenSCAD

此程序化3D实体CAD建模工具是另一种基于结构实体几何(Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG))的CAD软件。这意味着:它不能处理网格,而是专用于操作实体几何图形。在FreeCAD中,可通过在File → ImportFile → Export菜单中选择OpenSCAD CSG formatOpenSCAD format文件类型来导入、导出OpenSCAD所创建的文件。您可以从 https://www.openscad.org 处搞到OpenSCAD。

OpenSCAD is solid 3D modeller based on the constructive solid geometry (CSG) paradigm, where the model is created through a script. It can not handle meshes, but operates exclusively on solid geometry. FreeCAD can import and export files created from OpenSCAD through the Std Import and Std Export tools by the selecting the OpenSCAD CSG format or the OpenSCAD format file types. You can get OpenSCAD from https://www.openscad.org.

GitPython

一种用于与Git仓库进行交互的python库。FreeCAD中的此功能在还处于开发状态中。插件管理器可利用此库从Git仓库中导入各种扩展插件。此项目托管在GitHub中的 https://github.com/gitpython-developers/GitPython

GitPython is a library to interact with Git repositories. The Addon Manager can use this library to import addons from a Git repository. The project is hosted on GitHub at https://github.com/gitpython-developers/GitPython.

Finite element

CalculiX

CalculiX是两种有限元包的组合套件:

  • CalculiX CrunchiX, 或calculix-ccx为一种有限元求解器(FEM solver)。
  • CalculiX GraphiX, 或calculix-cgx为一种显示求解器计算结果的GUI前端。

CalculiX is a suite of two finite element packages:

  • CalculiX CrunchiX, or calculix-ccx, is a FEM solver.
  • CalculiX GraphiX, or calculix-cgx, is a GUI frontend to display the results of the solver.

这是FreeCAD中唯一默认支持的求解器。可以从有限元工作台(FEM Workbench)中的Solve → Solver CalculiX来访问它。这是FreeCAD中支持的一个标准且具实验性的功能。可从 http://calculix.de 来下载CalculiX。

Gmsh

一种3D有限元网格自动生成器。可在FreeCAD的有限元工作台(FEM workbench)中,通过Mesh → FEM mesh from shape by gmsh来使用它。gmsh的主页位于 http://www.geuz.org/gmsh

Gmsh is an automatic finite element mesh generator. It can be used in FreeCAD from the FEM workbench through Mesh → FEM mesh from shape by Gmsh. The homepage of Gmsh is at http://www.geuz.org/gmsh

Elmer

Elmer是一种多物理模拟软件,开源于2005年。在FreeCAD中,可通过Solve->Solver Elmer有限元工作台(FEM Workbench)调用Elmer的网格与求解(Grid and Solver)模块。Elmer项目的主页位于 https://www.elmerfem.org ,可从GitHub中的 https://github.com/ElmerCSC/elmerfem/releases 处下载。

Elmer is a multi-physics simulation software, which was open sourced in 2005. In FreeCAD its Grid and Solver modules can be used by the FEM Workbench through Solve → Solver Elmer. The project's homepage is at https://www.elmerfem.org and it can be downloaded from GitHub at https://github.com/ElmerCSC/elmerfem/releases.

FEniCS

FEniCS是一种解偏微分方程(partial differential equations (PDEs))的计算平台,广泛应用于解决有限元(FEM)问题。自然而然,有限元工作台(FEM workbench)也不例外。在FreeCAD里,可通过在File → ImportFile → Export中选择FEM mesh fenics文件格式来导入或导出FEniCS网格。FEniCS的主页位于 https://fenicsproject.org

FEniCS is a computing platform to solve partial differential equations (PDEs), which are widely used when solving FEM problems. As such it can be used by the FEM workbench. FreeCAD can import and export FEniCS meshes through Std Import and Std Export by selecting the FEM mesh fenics file format. The homepage of FEniCS is at https://fenicsproject.org.

Z88

Z88是另一种FEM程序,内含网格生成器、求解器与转换器,用于FreeCAD的有限元工作台中。可通过Solve-Solver Z88来访问它。Z88发布了多种包,皆为闭源免费使用。而Z88OS则是发布于开源许可证之下,这正是FreeCAD所梦寐以求的。Z88的首页为 https://en.z88.de/ 。Z88OS也托管于GitHub上: https://github.com/LSCAD/Z88OS ,如有需要,您可以自行编译。

Z88 is another FEM program, containing a mesher, solver and converters, which can be used by FreeCAD's FEM workbench. It can be accessed through Solve → Solver Z88. Z88 distributes several packages, which all freely available, but are closed source. The Z88OS however, published under an open source license, is what is needed by FreeCAD. The homepage is at https://en.z88.de/. Z88OS is also hosted on GitHub at https://github.com/LSCAD/Z88OS, if you want to compile it yourself.

OpenFOAM

一种用来实现场运算与处理(Field Operation and Manipulation (FOAM))的库,在计算流体力学(Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD))仿真中会用到它。正因如此,FreeCAD中的有限元工作台便会用到OpenFOAM。您可以通过Model → Fluid constraints子菜单来访问它。此项目位于 https://openfoam.org

OpenFOAM is a large collection of libraries for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. OpenFOAM can be used by external workbenches that build on top of FreeCAD to work as a preprocessor. The project resides at https://openfoam.org.

File formats

CAD Exchanger

此为一种用于交换CAD中所用各种文件格式的专用闭源应用程序。您可以用它把专有闭源的格式转换为FreeCAD可访问的格式。本工具的主页为 https://cadexchanger.com/ ,在此,您可以下载该软件的评估版或购买该软件的使用许可。

A proprietary, closed source application for exchanging various file formats used in CAD. You can use it to convert proprietary, closed formats into a format which is accessible by FreeCAD. The homepage is at https://cadexchanger.com/ where you can download an evaluation version or purchase a license for the application.

DXF Importer

FreeCAD中有一个以C++编写的DXF原生导入、导出工具。 此导入器当前还未实现DXF格式的所有特性。如果您用到了那些还没有实现的特性,可通过在Edit → Preferences → Import-Export中选择Use legacy python importer选项来开启基于python的旧版导入/导出工具。您还可以通过Allow FreeCAD to automatically download and update the DXF libaries选项令FreeCAD自动从 https://github.com/yorikvanhavre/Draft-dxf-importer 下载所需文件,或自己手动下载。被选中的导入 / 导出工具用于实现File → ImportFile → ExportAutoDesk DXF 2D文件格式的导入导出工作。(译注:简而言之,原生导入导出器有新旧两种,旧版以python编写,功能完整但速度较慢;新版由C++编写,速度快但功能还未完整实现。)

FreeCAD has a native importer and exporter for DXF files, programmed in C++. Currently this importer does not implement all features of the DXF format. If you rely on a not yet implemented feature, you enable an older python based importer/exporter through Edit → Preferences → Import-Export by activating the Use legacy python importer option. You can then choose to let FreeCAD automatically download the needed files or you can grab them from https://github.com/yorikvanhavre/Draft-dxf-importer. The chosen importer and exporter is used by Std Import and Std Export and choosing the AutoDesk DXF 2D file format.

ODA文件转换器

ODA文件转换器是一种专有、闭源、二进制且可自由使用的应用程序,用于导入、导出DWG 与 DXF 文件格式。在 FreeCAD中的File → ImportFile → Export菜单里选择AutoDesk DWG 2D文件类型时便会用到它。可从 https://www.opendesign.com/guestfiles/oda_file_converter 下载它。

The ODA file converter is a proprietary, closed source, binary and freely available application to import and export DWG and DXF file formats. In FreeCAD it can be used by Std Import and Std Export when you select the AutoDesk DWG 2D file type. It can be downloaded from https://www.opendesign.com/guestfiles/oda_file_converter.

ifcOpenShell

IfcOpenShell是一种用来处理建筑设计所用Industry Foundation Classes (IFC)文件格式的库。可在建筑工作台(Arch Workbench)中通过Arch → Utilities → Ifc Explorer来访问它。ifcOpenShell的主页位于 http://ifcopenshell.org

IfcOpenShell is a library for working with the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) file format used in architectural design. It can be accessed from the Arch Workbench through Arch → Utilities → Ifc Explorer. It's homepage is at http://ifcopenshell.org.

pycollada

Pycollada,又名python-collada,是一款用来读写COLLADA文档(一种用于交换3D场景与元素的标准)的Python库。如果您安装了pycollada,就可以通过在File → ImportFile → Export命令中选择COLLADA文件类型,以COLLADA导入/导出场景。此项目托管于GitHub中的 https://pycollada.github.io/ ,您可以从 https://github.com/pycollada/pycollada/releases/ 下载其发行版。

Pycollada, also known as python-collada, is a Python library to read and write COLLADA documents, a standard for exchanging 3D scenes and elements. If it is installed you can import and export scenes to and from COLLADA files through Std Import and Std Export by selecting the COLLADA file type. The project is hosted in GitHub at https://pycollada.github.io/ and you can download the releases at https://github.com/pycollada/pycollada/releases/.

Rendering

POVRay

POVRay是一款人所共知的光线追踪器,借助它可渲染出照片级的图像。它在FreeCAD光线追踪工作台(Raytracing Workbench)目前所支持的两种光追器中坐有一席。可以从 https://www.povray.org 下载到POVRay。

POVRay is a well-known raytracer which can render photorealistic images. It is one of two raytracers currently supported by FreeCAD in the Raytracing Workbench. You can download POVRay from https://www.povray.org.

LuxCoreRender

LuxCoreRender,也作LuxRender,FreeCAD中当前支持的两种渲染引擎之一。在光线追踪工作台(Raytracing Workbench)的工作流程中会用到它。FreeCAD目前仅支持老旧过时的LuxRender-1.x。如果您想帮助FreeCAD更新至新的LuxCoreRender-2,请联系光线追踪项目的工作团队。您可以从LuxCoreRender的GitHub发行页面 https://github.com/LuxCoreRender/LuxCore/releases 处下载LuxRender-1.6。LuxCoreRender项目的当前主页为 https://www.luxcorerender.org

LuxCoreRender, also known as LuxRender, is one of two currently supported render engines in FreeCAD. It is used through the workflow on the Raytracing Workbench. Currently only the old and abandoned LuxRender-1.x is supported by FreeCAD. Downloads for LuxRender-1.6 can be grabbed from the LuxCoreRender GitHub release page at https://github.com/LuxCoreRender/LuxCore/releases. The homepage for the current LuxCoreRender project is at https://www.luxcorerender.org.

相关页面

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