Atelierul Draft (Desen 2D)

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Draft workbench icon

Introduction

Introducere

Atelierul Draft vă permite desenarea rapidă a unor obiecte bidimensionale în documentul curent şi oferă mai multe unelte pentru modificarea lor ulterioară. De asemenea, oferă instrumente pentru a defini un plan de lucru, o rețea și un sistem de ancorare pentru a controla precis poziția geometriei dvs.

Obiectele create 2D pot fi folosite pentru redactarea generală într-un mod similar cu Inkscape sau Autocad. Aceste forme 2D pot fi de asemenea utilizate ca componente de bază ale obiectelor 3D create cu alte ateliere de lucru, de exemplu, Part și Arch Workbench. Este, de asemenea, posibilă transformarea de obiecte Draft în Sketches, ceea ce înseamnă că formele pot fi de asemenea utilizate cu PartDesign Workbench pentru crearea de corpuri solide.

The Draft Workbench also provides tools to define a working plane, a grid, and a snapping system to precisely control the position of geometry.

FreeCAD este în primul rând o aplicație de modelare 3D și, prin urmare, instrumentele sale 2D nu sunt la fel de avansate ca în cazul altor programe de desenare. Dacă obiectivul dvs. principal este producerea de desene complexe 2D și fișiere DXF și nu aveți nevoie de modelare 3D, vă recomandăm să luați în considerare un program software dedicat pentru redactarea tehnică, cum ar fi LibreCAD, QCad, TurboCad, ș.a.m.d.

Draft Workbench Example.png

The image shows the grid aligned with the XY plane.
On the left, in white, several planar objects.
On the right a non-planar Draft Wire used as the Path Object of a Draft PathArray.

Drafting

  • Draft Line.svg Line: creates a straight line.
  • Draft Wire.svg Polyline: creates a polyline, a sequence of several connected line segments.
  • Draft Arc.svg Arc tools
  • Draft Arc.svg Arc: creates a circular arc from a center, a radius, a start angle and an aperture angle.
  • Draft Circle.svg Circle: creates a circle from a center and a radius.
  • Draft Ellipse.svg Ellipse: creates an ellipse from two points defining a rectangle in which the ellipse will fit.
  • Draft Rectangle.svg Rectangle: creates a rectangle from two points.
  • Draft Polygon.svg Polygon: creates a regular polygon from a center and a radius.
  • Draft BSpline.svg B-spline: creates a B-spline curve from several points.
  • Draft CubicBezCurve.svg Bézier tools
  • Draft Point.svg Point: creates a simple point.
  • Draft Facebinder.svg Facebinder: creates a surface object from selected faces.
  • Draft ShapeString.svg ShapeString: creates a compound shape that represents a text string.

Annotation

  • Draft Text.svg Text: creates a multi-line text at a given point.
  • Draft Dimension.svg Dimension: creates a linear dimension, a radial dimension or an angular dimension.
  • Draft Label.svg Label: creates a multi-line text with a 2-segment leader line and an arrow.

Modification

  • Draft Move.svg Move: moves or copies selected objects from one point to another.
  • Draft Rotate.svg Rotate: rotates or copies selected objects around a center point by a given angle.
  • Draft Scale.svg Scale: scales or copies selected objects around a base point.
  • Draft Mirror.svg Mirror: creates mirrored copies from selected objects.
  • Draft Offset.svg Offset: offsets each segment of a selected object over a given distance, or creates an offset copy of the selected object.
  • Draft Trimex.svg Trimex: trims or extends a selected object.
  • Draft Stretch.svg Stretch: stretches objects by moving selected points.
  • Draft Clone.svg Clone: creates linked copies, clones, of selected objects.
  • Draft OrthoArray.svg Array tools
  • Draft PathArray.svg Path array: creates an array from a selected object by placing copies along a path.
  • Draft PointArray.svg Point Array: creates an array from a selected object by placing copies at the points from a point compound.
  • Draft Edit.svg Edit: puts selected objects in Draft Edit mode. In this mode the properties of objects can be edited graphically.
  • Draft SubelementHighlight.svg Subelement highlight: temporarily highlights selected objects, or the base objects of selected objects.
  • Draft Upgrade.svg Upgrade: upgrades selected objects.

Draft Tray

The Draft Tray allows selecting the working plane, defining style settings, toggling construction mode, and specifying the active layer or group.

Draft tray default.png

  • Draft tray button plane.png Select Plane: selects the current Draft working plane. Also available in the menu: Draft → Utilities → Draft SelectPlane.svg Select Plane.
  • Draft tray button construction.png Toggle construction mode: switches Draft construction mode on or off. Also available in the menu: Draft → Utilities → Draft ToggleConstructionMode.svg Toggle construction mode.

Draft annotation scale widget

With the Draft annotation scale widget the Draft annotation scale can be specified. introduced in version 0.19

Draft annotation scale widget button.png

Draft snap widget

The Draft snap widget can be used as an alternative for the Draft Snap toolbar. introduced in version 0.19

Draft snap widget button.png

Draft Snap toolbar

The Draft Snap toolbar allows selecting the active snap options. The buttons belonging to active options stay depressed. For general information about snapping see: Draft Snap.

  • Draft Snap Lock.svg Snap Lock: enables or disables snapping globally.
  • Draft Snap Angle.svg Snap Angle: snaps to the special cardinal points on circular edges, at multiples of 30° and 45°.
  • Draft Snap Extension.svg Snap Extension: snaps to an imaginary line that extends beyond the endpoints of straight edges.
  • Draft Snap Parallel.svg Snap Parallel: snaps to an imaginary line parallel to straight edges.
  • Draft Snap Special.svg Snap Special: snaps to special points defined by the object.
  • Draft Snap Near.svg Snap Near: snaps to the nearest point on faces or edges.
  • Draft Snap Ortho.svg Snap Ortho: snaps to imaginary lines that cross the previous point at 0°, 45°, 90° and 135°.
  • Draft Snap Grid.svg Snap Grid: snaps to the intersections of grid lines.

Utilitare

Additional tools

O serie de instrumente suplimentare sunt oferite de un meniu Draft → Utilities, sau cu clic-dreapta în meniul contextual, în funcţie de obiectele selectate:

  • Draft Heal.svg Heal: heals problematic Draft objects found in very old files.

Caracteristici suplimentare

  • Coordinates:

introduceți coordonatele în loc să faceți clic pe vizualizarea 3D pentru a defini un nou punct.

limitați pointerul la mișcări orizontale sau verticale în raport cu un punct anterior.

plasați noi puncte pe locuri speciale pe obiecte existente sau pe grilă.

Tree view context menu

The following additional options are available in the Tree view context menu:

Default options

If there is an active document the context menu contains one additional sub-menu:

  • Utilities: a subset of the tools available in the main Draft Utilities menu.

Wire options

For a Draft Wire, Draft BSpline, Draft CubicBezCurve and Draft BezCurve this additional option is available:

  • Draft Edit.svg Flatten this wire: flattens the wire based on its internal geometry. This option currently does not work properly.

Layer container options

For a Draft LayerContainer these additional options are available:

  • Draft Layer.svg Merge layer duplicates: merges all layers with the same base label. This does not work in FreeCAD version 0.19.

Layer options

For a Draft Layer these additional options are available:

Working plane proxy options

For a Draft WorkingPlaneProxy these additional options are available:

  • Draft SelectPlane.svg Write objects state: updates the VizualizareVisibility Map property of the working plane proxy with the current visibility state of objects in the document.

3D view context menu

The following additional options are available in the 3D view context menu:

Default options

If there is an active document the context menu contains one additional sub-menu:

  • Utilities: a subset of the tools available in the main Draft Utilities menu.

Obsolete tools

These commands are obsolete but still available:

Preferințe

  • Preferences-draft.svg Preferences: Preferințe disponibile în Atelierul Draft Workbench.
  • Preferences-import-export.svg Import-Export Preferences: preferințele disponibile pentru importul și exportul în diferite formate de fișiere.

Formate de fişiere

Atelierul Desen 2D (Draft) înzestrează FreeCAD cu importul şi exportul următoarele formate de fişiere:

Unit tests

See also: Test Workbench.

To run the unit tests of the workbench execute the following from the operating system terminal:

freecad -t TestDraft

Script

Instrumentele de proiectare pot fi utilizate în macros și din consola Python.

The workbench includes a module to create samples of all objects in a new document. introduced in version 0.19

Use this to test that all objects are produced correctly:

import drafttests.draft_test_objects as dto
doc = dto.create_test_file()

Inspecting the code of this module can help to understand the programming interface.

Tutorials